The article reports the results of a comparative analysis made for three novel unconventional gear wheel forging processes based on the authors’ patented [5,6,21] plastic forming methods developed chiefly for the purposes of extruding hollow products as well as valves and pins. These processes are distinguished by the fact that part of the tooling elements which are normally fixed during conventional forging are purposefully set in motion. This is intended to change the conditions of friction at the metal-tool contact surface and to induce additional thermal effects due to the transformation of the plastic deformation energy into thermal energy and, as a consequence, to improve the plastic flow of metal and to reduce the force parameters of the process.
The article proposes the implementation of a novel method of plastic forming of internal toothing in flange spline sleeves. A method being the subject of Polish patent application P.416772 has been used for this purpose, which involves a combination of the scheme of the direct extrusion of a cone hollow with the die press forming of the wall to obtain a flange. The entire process takes place in a single technological sequence. The operations come one after another, so that there is no need for reheating the stock or carrying out intermediate soft annealing. The proposed method is assumed to be an alternative to the operation of press forming of internal spline sleeve toothing in a conical die  and to the operation of swaging on rotary swaging machines . It is assumed that this method, too, is alternative to other technologies known from the literature and industrial practice, whose specifications and literature references will be indicated later on in this paper. Computer simulations of the flanged sleeve plastic forming process were performed using the commercial numerical program Forge®3D. During the numerical computations, the distributions of temperature fields were determined on the cross-section of the plastically formed product. The computations enabled also the visualization of the plastic flow of metal, especially in the toothing forming regions, and the determination of the energy and force parameters of the process.
The impulse noise is agent harmful to health not only in the case of shots from firearms and the explosions of explosive materials. This kind of noise is also present in many workplaces in the industry. The paper presents the results of noise parameters measurements in workplaces where four different die forging hammers were used. The measured values of the C-weighted peak sound pressure level, the A-weighted maximum sound pressure level and A-weighted noise exposure level normalized to an 8 h working day (daily noise exposure level) exceeded the exposure limit values. For example, the highest measured value of the C-weighted peak sound pressure level was 148.9 dB. In this study possibility of the protection of hearing with the use of earplugs or earmuffs was assessed. The measurement method for the measurements of noise parameters under hearing protection devices using an acoustical test fixture instead of testing with the participation of subjects was used. The results of these measurements allows for assessment which of two tested earplugs and two tested earmuffs sufficiently protect hearing of workers in workplaces where forging hammers are used.
The paper presents a description of the phenomena occurring on the surface of the forging dies. A detailed analysis was made of 24 pre-forging dies due to the most intensive wear in this operation. To compare the results, new tools were also analysed. The research described in the study showed that the most dangerous factor for the hot forging process analysed is thermal-mechanical fatigue, which causes small cracks, which in turn quickly leads to the formation of a crack network on the entire contact surface of the tool with forged material. The second phenomenon is the tempering of the surface of the material for a long-term temperature effect. The presence of hard iron oxides in the form of scale from forging material is the accompanying phenomenon that intensifies the processes of tool wear. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the presence of residual magnetic field for forging tools and the results of laboratory tests of wear processes of tool steels for hot work in the presence of a magnetic field and in the presence of scale.
The paper deals with evaluation of a 3D scanning method elaborated by the authors, by applying it to the analysis of the wear of forging tools. The 3D scanning method in the first place consists in the application of scanning to the analysis of changes in geometry of a forging tool by way of comparing the images of a worn tool with a CAD model or an image of a new tool. The method was evaluated in the context of the important measurement problems resulting from the extreme conditions present during the industrial hot forging processes. The method was used to evaluate wear of tools with an increasing wear degree, which made it possible to determine the wear characteristics in a function of the number of produced forgings. The following stage was the use it for a direct control of the quality and geometry changes of forging tools (without their disassembly) by way of a direct measurement of the geometry of periodically collected forgings (indirect method based on forgings). The final part of the study points to the advantages and disadvantages of the elaborated method as well as the potential directions of its further development.
Pre-alloyed Astaloy CrLTM (Fe-1.5 wt% Cr-0.2 wt% Mo), a commercial Fe-based alloy powder for high strength powder metallurgy products, was sintered and hot forged with additions of 0.5 wt% C and 0~2 wt% Cu. To investigate the influence of various Cu contents, the microstructural evolution was characterized using density measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Transverse rupture strength (TRS) was measured for each composition and processing stage. The correlation between Cu additions and properties of sinter-forged Fe-Cr-Mo-C alloy was discussed in detail.
In the work was presented the results of studies concerns on the destructive mechanisms for forging tools used in the wheel forging process as well the laboratory results obtained on a specially constructed test items for testing abrasive wear and thermal fatigue. The research results of the forging tools shown that the dominant destructive mechanisms are thermal fatigue occurring in the initial the exploitation stage and abrasive wear, which occurs later, and is intensified effects of thermo-mechanical fatigue and oxidation process. In order to better analysis of phenomena associated with destructive mechanisms, the authors built a special test stands allow for a more complete analysis of each of the mechanisms separately under laboratory conditions, which correspond to the industrial forging processes. A comprehensive analysis of the forging tools confirmed by laboratory tests, showed the interaction between the thermal fatigue and abrasive wear, combined with the oxidation process. The obtained results showed that the process of oxidation and thermal fatigue, very often occur together with the mechanism of abrasive wear, creating a synergy effect. This causing the acceleration, the most visible and easily measurable process of abrasive wear.
An ancient forging device in Spain has been studied, namely the forge with a waterwheel and air-blowing tube or hydraulic trompe, found near the village of Santa Eulalia de Oscos (province of Asturias, Spain). Three procedures using ad hoc methods were applied: 3D modelling, finite element analysis (FEA), and computational-fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD results indicated the proper functioning of the trompe, which is a peculiar device based on the Venturi effect to take in air. The maximum air volume flow rate supplied to the forge by the trompe was shown to be 0.091 m3/s, and certain parameters of relevance in the trompe design presented optimal values, i.e. offering maximum air-flow supply. Furthermore, the distribution of stress over the motion-transmission system revealed that the stress was concentrated most intensely in the cogs of the transmission shaft (a kind of camshaft), registering values of up to 7.50 MPa, although this value remained below half of the maximum admissible work stress. Therefore, it was confirmed that the oak wood from which the motion system and the trompe were made functioned properly, as these systems never exceeded the maximum admissible working stress, demonstrating the effectiveness of the materials used in that period.