Cd and Pb concentrations were measured in water, sediment and plant organs collected from selective sites located along the Bogdanka river (Poznań, Poland) in the 2012 growing season. The aim of the investigations was to monitor changes in heavy metal (HM) concentrations in different media over the periods, as well as to evaluate potential of two littoral plants, Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia, for phytoremediation under natural conditions. Investigations revealed differences in HM concentrations in water and sediments. Higher values were observed in sediments than in water. The decrease in concentrations of both HMs in sediments was noted in two of the three selected water reservoirs during growing seasons, which suggests the possibility of their adsorption and accumulation by aquatic plants. Both investigated plant species accumulated ample amount of Cd and Pb in underground and aboveground plant tissues, however T. angustifolia revealed higher Cd translocation potential than P. australis. The latter revealed higher Pb accumulation in two lakes. Moreover, the translocation ratio was usually higher in spring, especially for Pb, in both plant species. Increasing level of pollution load index in sediment along the Bogdanka watercourse indicates accumulation of measured HMs.
Diatom assemblages from small pools and creeks on the Ecology Glacier forefield have been investigated. It is the first study in the Admiralty Bay region after the thorough taxonomic revision of the non-marine Antarctic diatom flora. A total of 122 diatom taxa, belonging to 35 genera were identified. More than 55% of all observed species have a restricted Antarctic distribution. Another 15% have a marine origin. Nitzschia gracilis Hantzsch, N. homburgiensis Lange-Bertalot and Planothidium rostrolanceolatum Van de Vijver et al. dominated the flora. Based on a DCA analysis, samples were subdivided in three groups reflecting ecological differences. Several samples (group 1) showed a mixed freshwater/marine diatom composition and are typical for coastal pools. Two other groups were separated based on the amount of limnoterrestrial taxa indicating the temporary character of some of the pools.
Some 20 samples of bottom sediments of freshwater lakes collected in the Antarctic Thala Hills oasis (Enderby Land) were soaked in laboratory cultures. 85 taxa of algae were identified in these cultures: Cyanophyceae — 54, Chrysophyceae — 1, Xanthophyceae 10 and Chlorophyceae — 20 taxa. Most of these taxa are illustrated.
Nematoda, Tardigrada, Rotifera and Crustacea composition in different freshwater habitats on Spitsbergen (Arctic) and King George Island (Antarctic) was presented. In all surveyed groups more genera and species were recorded from Spitsbergen than from King George Island. Habitats richest in taxa were moss banks and thaw ponds, whereas streams were poorest in species. In all groups in both regions cosmopolitan species dominated, but higher number of endemic species was recorded on King George Island. Regarding species composition in surveyed groups it can be suggested that freshwater habitats on Spitsbergen are more similar to each other than those on King George Island.
The specific activity of natural gamma emitters like actinium (228Ac), bismuth (212Bi, 214Bi), lead (212Pb, 214Pb), potassium (40K), radium (224Ra), thallium (208Tl) and artificial radioisotope caesium (137Cs) was measured in 2005 in the surface layer of marine sediments in the northern Svalbard: Wijdefjorden, Woodfjorden, Vestfjorden and Bockfjorden as well as in the freshwater reservoirs in Andre Land. Nonuniform spatial distribution of these radionuclides was found. Sediment sample from Bockfjorden had the highest specific activities of all natural radionuclides. The specific radioactivity of 137Cs was much lower than specific radioactivities of natural radionuclides but there were differences between investigated locations. The distribution of 137Cs is similar to persistent organic pollutants of the lake sediments in the area.
The Panorama Point Beds represent a subfacies of the Early to Middle Permian Radok Conglomerate, which is the oldest known sedimentary unit in the Prince Charles Mountains, MacRobertson Land, East Antarctica. This unit records clastic sedimentation in fresh−water depositional system during the early stages of development of the Lambert Graben, a major structural valley surrounded by crystalline highlands in the southern part of Gondwana. It contains common siderite precipitated through early diagenetic processes in the swamp, stagnant water, and stream−flow environments. There are two types of siderite in the Panorama Point Beds: (1) disseminated cement that occurs throughout the sedimentary suc− cession; and (2) concretions that occur at recurrent horizons in fine−grained sediments. The cement is composed of Fe−depleted siderite (less than 90mol%FeCO3)with an elevated con− tent of magnesium, and trace and rare earth elements. It has negative #2;13CVPDB values (−4.5 to −1.5‰). The concretions are dominated by Fe−rich siderite (more than 90mol% FeCO3),with positive 13CVPDB values (+1 to +8‰). There are no noticeable differences in the oxygen (18OVPDB between −20 and −15‰) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr between 0.7271 and 0.7281) iso− topic compositions between the siderite types. The cement and concretions developed in the nearsurface to subsurface environment dominated by suboxic and anoxic methanic degrada− tion of organic matter, respectively. The common presence of siderite in the Panorama Point Beds suggests that fresh−water environments of the Lambert Graben were covered by vegetation, starting from the early history of its development in the Early Permian.
In general, Antarctic marine bacteria are small, with biovolumes ranging from 0.139 to 0.204 μm-3 cell-1, but their total biomass in seawater is considerable due to relatively high numbers that approximate to 1020 cells km-3. Bacterial biomass becomes more concentrated closer to land. Our multi-year Antarctic studies demonstrated an average total bacterial biomass of 504 tons in Admirality Bay (24 km3) or 21 tons per 1 km3, versus 6.4 tons per 1 km3 in the open ocean. Strikingly, bacterial biomass reached 330 tons per 1 km3 of seawater at the sea-ice edge, as sampled in Goulden Cove in Admiralty Bay. Bacterial biomass in Admirality Bay, which we believe can be enriched by halotolerant and thermotolerant fresh water bacteria from glacial streams, is equal to or even exceeds that of the standing stock of krill (100-630 tons per bay) or other major living components, including phytoplankton (657 tons), flagellates (591 tons), and ciliates (412 tons). However, the bacterial biomass is exceeded by several orders of magnitude by non-living organic matter, which constitutes the basic bacterial carbon source. Factors regulating high bacterial abundance in the vicinity of land are discussed.
Luticola muticopsis is a characteristic species of polar and subpolar regions. Its morphological variability is not yet precisely described. In the investigated population the cells from capitate to shortened, flat rounded tips were observed. The range of dimensions of specimens was 8.8-40.6 μm x 5.5-17.6 μm, striae 11-22/10 μm; this range considerably exceeded that found in holotype diagnosis.