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Number of results: 46
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Abstract

Nine phyto-ashes from the biomass combustion of birch (Betula), oak (Quercus), red oak (Quercus rubra), horbeam (Carpinus), pine (Pinus sylvestris), poplar (Populus), maple (Acer), oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus) and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) were blended with a biogas digestate at 1:1 mass ratio to give nine organic-mineral soil improvers. The concept of the research was to outline an eco-friendly and low cost soil improver for remediating degraded lands. These (i.e. phyto-ashes, improvers and the biogas digestate) were applied (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 t·ha-1) to a soil metallurgically contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd. Of several tested parameters, pH changes revealed that organic-mineral soil improvers may efficiently replace (linear R2>0.90****, P<0.001) phyto-ashes in soil remedial goals. Buffering properties expressed by the cation exchange capacity (CEC) improved progressively: 29, 52, 71, 100% (phyto-ash treatments) and: 18, 37, 44, 73% (improvers treatments) for the rates 5, 10, 20, 40 t·ha-1, respectively as referred to the control CEC. The Dynamic Remediation Efficiency (DRE) indices for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd revealed metal-specific geochemical reactions initiated by phyto-ashes, improvers and biogas digestate. The rates 5.0–10.0 t·ha-1 for phyto-ashes and about 20 t·ha-1 for improvers [1:1, i.e. Phyto-ash:Biogas digestate] are recommended. For biogas digestate, the rates 10–20 t·ha-1 were found more efficient.
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Abstract

The aim of the paper is to improve the phytoremediation features of the metallophyte Silene vulgaris through photo-stimulation of seeds using a semi-conductive laser. Seeds of two Silene vulgaris ecotypes were used in the experiment. One type of seeds – “Wiry” ecotype – originated from a site contaminated with heavy metals (a serpentinite waste heap), and the other ecotype – “Gajków” – was collected on a site with naturally low heavy metal content. The seeds of both types were preconditioned with laser light with previously fixed doses: C(D0), D1, D3, D5, D7, D9. The basic radiation dose was 2.5·10-1 J·cm-2. The soil for the experiment was serpentinite weathering waste. The seeds and plants were cultivated in the controlled conditions of a climatic chamber. Laser light indeed stimulated seed germinative capacity but better effects were obtained in “Wiry” ecotype, originating from a location contaminated with heavy metals. In the case of morphological features, a significant differentiation of stem length was found for different ecotypes, dosages and the interactions of these factors. The study showed a strong influence of laser radiation on selected element concentrations in above-ground parts of Silene vulgaris, though “Wiry” ecotype clearly accumulated more heavy metals and magnesium than the “Gajków” ecotype.
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Abstract

Until now, dust arising from lime manufacture has been considered harmless to the environment so it has been investigated marginally from the standpoint of environmental protection, especially when it came to magnetic properties and heavy metal content. The aim of the research was filling the gap in this area. The research comprised measurements of magnetic susceptibility, the content of heavy metals, reaction (pH) and specific conductivity of lime dust and also raw material and fuel used for lime production. The samples were taken from one of the lime plants located in Opole Province. Similar investigations were also performed for dust taken from the nearby cement plant using dry method of cement production. It was proven that magnetic susceptibility, heavy metal content and conductivity of lime dust was lower in comparison to cement dust, which resulted from the fact that the lime plant used neither low raw materials nor additives. Due to the high atmosphere dust level in the vicinity of the investigated plants, extremely basic reaction of the tested dust and high content of metals, the studied dust cause alkalization of soils and contribute to the increase of heavy metal content in soils, posing a threat to the environment.
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Abstract

The research aim was to determine the long-term impact of the mine waste stored at the coal waste dump Hałda Ruda on the content of heavy metals in the bottom sediments of the Bytomka River. It is a watercourse flowing along this coal waste dump and has been under its influence for over fifty years. The research also attempted to determine the seasonality of changes (2 years) and mobility of selected elements. The article presents total contents of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in the bottom sediments collected from the Bytomka River. It also focuses on the distribution of these elements in particular geochemical fractions determined with the Tessier's sequential chemical extraction procedure. Total element contents were determined with an EDPXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) technique. The extractants of particular Tessier's fractions were determined quantitatively with an ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) spectrometer. The research results show that the stored waste significantly influences the contents of heavy metals in the Bytomka River bottom sediments. The lowest concentration of heavy metals was observed at the B1 spot (above the dump), while the highest one was measured at the B3 spot (below the dump). Sequential chemical extraction of the bottom sediments indicates that the Zn content in the ion-exchange and carbonate fractions diminished within a year. Nevertheless, Zn bound to Fe and Mn oxides acted in the opposite way. Mn, Zn and Pb are the most dangerous elements from the viewpoint of environmental hazards, as their total concentrations were high. Moreover, their high contents were observed in the most mobile (ion-exchange and carbonate) fractions. Extremely toxic Cd was bound to the oxide fraction to the largest extent. Cu was mainly bound to the organic fraction while environmentally hazardous Cr was bound to the residual fraction.
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Abstract

Environmental risks associated with Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in street dust collected from Baotou, a medium-sized industrial city in a semi-arid area of northwest China, were assessed by using enrichment factor and the potential ecological index. Their spatial distributions and sources in the dust were analyzed on the basis of geostatistical methods and multivariate statistical analysis, respectively. The results indicate that street dust in Baotou has elevated heavy metal concentrations, especially of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Co in the dust was significantly enriched. Cr and Pb were from moderate to significant enrichment. Cu and Zn were from minimal to moderate enrichment, whereas Mn, Ni and V in the dust were from deficient to minimal enrichment. The ecological risk levels of Co and Pb in the dust were moderate to considerable and low to moderate, respectively, whereas those of other heavy metals studied in the dust presented low ecological risk. Different distribution patterns were found among the analyzed heavy metals. Three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. Cr, Mn, Ni and V originated from nature and industrial activities. Cu, Pb and Zn derived mainly from traffic sources, and Co was mainly from construction sources.
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Abstract

The paper presents the research results for the soils sampled from the area located in the eastern part of the Chodzieskie Lakes, between the Middle Noteć River Valley and the Wełna River Valley, the right tributary of the Warta River. The research involved 7 soil samples from the surface horizons, allocated to the cultivation of various plant species (cereals and vegetable crops). The following were determined in the soil material: the content of phytoavailable forms of selected heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe and Mn, active and available to plants phosphorus against the activity of selected oxydo-reduction and hydrolytic enzymes. The soil under the vegetable crops showed a very high richness in phosphorus available to plants, which must have been related to an intensive fertilisation. There were identified relatively low contents of the available forms of the heavy metals investigated, the fact that points to their natural content in soil, which triggered the inhibition of neither the oxydo-reduction nor hydrolytic enzymes.
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the degree of pollution of bottom sediments from small water reservoirs with heavy metals on the basis of geochemical criteria: the enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index. The investigations concerned sediment from eight small water reservoirs located in the Kielce Highland. Selected heavy metals, including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry method. Additionally, particle size distribution and the content of organic matter expressed as loss of ignition were designated. The concentration of heavy metals in sediments was characterized by a great variety. The sediments of Morawica and Rejów show very high and extremely high enrichment in Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd. The values of EF>20 indicate also an extremely high enrichment in Cd of sediments in Mostki. In addition, over 50% of the samples of sediment from Suchedniów, Kaniów, Mostki and Jaśle reservoirs (the value of EF for Cr exceeded 5) indicate a moderately high enrichment of this element. Results of the analysis of the Igeo values indicate that the tested sediments are characterized by moderately high (2<Igeo<3) or high (3<Igeo<4) pollution. The differences in individual enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index values may result in the nature of heavy metals, their pollution loads, as well as speciation forms of trace elements occurrence in sediment-water complex. These findings indicate that the integration of geochemical methods is necessary for an appropriate ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in bottom sediments.
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Abstract

This paper presents a voltammetric segmented voltage sweep mode that can be used to identify and measure heavy metals' concentrations. The proposed sweep mode covers a set of voltage ranges that are centered around the redox potentials of the metals that are under analysis. The heavy metal measurement system can take advantage of the historical database of measurements to identify the metals with higher concentrations in a given geographical area, and perform a segmented sweep around predefined voltage ranges or, alternatively, the system can perform a fast linear voltage sweep to identify the voltammetric current peaks and then perform a segmented voltage sweep around the set of voltages that are associated with the voltammetric current peaks. The paper also includes the presentation of two auto-calibration modes that can be used to improve system's reliability and proposes the usage of a Gaussian curve fitting of voltammetric data to identify heavy metals and to evaluate their concentrations. Several simulation and experimental results, that validate the theoretical expectations, are also presented in the paper.
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Abstract

Sediments of two dam reservoirs in SE Poland, Zalew Zemborzycki (ZZ) and Brody Iłżeckie (BI) were studied. The sediments from both reservoirs were sampled in the transects perpendicular to the shoreline, at the river inflow and the frontal dam. The total concentration of Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr and Ni was determined by ICP-EAS method after the sample digestion in the mixture of concentrated HNO3 and HClO4 acids. The statistical analyses: value intervals, mean values, variation coefficient, the median and the skewed distribution were performed. To estimate differences between the means for transects, Tukey’s test was applied with least significant difference (LSD) determination. The maps of the metal spatial distribution were drawn and sediment quality according to the geochemical and ecotoxicological criteria evaluated. Differences between the reservoirs in terms of heavy metals concentration in bottom sediments, and regularities in their spatial distribution were found. In the ZZ sediments the concentration was at the level of geochemical background (Zn, Cr), slightly (Cd, Cu, Ni) or moderately (Pb) contaminated sediments. The metal concentration in the sediments of the BI was up to eight times higher as compared to the ZZ. Moreover, sediments from the BI reservoir showed a greater variability of metal concentration than those from ZZ, which resulted from the dredging operation performed in the part of the reservoir. Metal concentration in sediments of the dredged part was ca. 2–5 times lower than in the undredged one, which indicates that after the dredging operation, accumulation of these metals was slight. The concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd from the undredged part of BI were at the level of contaminated sediments and exceeded the probable effects level (PEL). In the ZZ, the greatest accumulation of metals occurred in the upper part of the reservoir and at the frontal dam, and the lowest in the middle part of the reservoir. In BI, the lower outflow of water in this reservoir caused a lower metal concentration in the sediments at the frontal dam, as compared with the other sediments in the undredged part of the reservoir. The results indicate that in small and shallow reservoirs, areas of accumulation of heavy metals depend on such factors as a parent river current, reservoir depth, water waving, reservoir shape (narrowing, coves/bays), and type of water outflow.
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Abstract

To investigate and assess the effects of land use and its changes on concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Fe) in the tributary of drinking water reservoir catchment, soils of different land use types (forest, arable land, meadows and pastures, residential areas), suspended sediment and bottom sediment were collected. Heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The metal distribution pattern was observed, where Zn and Cd could be considered as main metal contaminants. The variation in the concentration level of Zn and Cd in studied soils showed the impact of pollution from anthropogenic activities. Also some seasonal variations were visible among the suspended sediment and bottom sediment samples which could be associated with land agricultural practices or meteorological conditions. The sediment fingerprints approach used for determining sources of the suspension in the catchment showed (Kruskal-Wallis H test, p<0.05), that only Mn and Ni were not able to be distinguished among the potential sediment sources. A multiple linear regression model described the relationship between suspended sediment and 4 types of soil samples. The results related suspended composition mostly to the samples from the residential land use. Considering the contemporary trend of observed changes in land use resulting in conversion of agricultural areas into residential and service structures these changes can be essential for the contamination of aquatic environment. This situation is a warning sign due to the rapid industrialization, urbanization and intensive agriculture in this region what can significantly affect the drinking water quality.
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Abstract

Biomass is commonly considered as a renewable fuel, which taking into account emission of CO2 does not contribute to the emission of the greenhouse gases. In the research, combustion tests of two types of fuel formed on the basis of straw with addition of polyethylene were performed in the laboratory. The article presents results of measurements of gas pollution coming from the combustion of the formed fuel. Obtained results were compared with similar literature data for the combustion of coal. The research covers also testing of chemical content, content of heavy metals and selected physical properties of ashes generated during the process of burning fuel based on straw.
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Abstract

The possibility of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Sn(II) removal from model solutions and real wastewater from the production of PCBs using Na2 CS3 for precipitation was presented in this paper. The testing was carried out on a laboratory scale using model and real industrial wastewater containing additives in the form of complexing compounds used in the production of PCBs (Na2 EDTA, NH3(aq), thiourea) and recommended by the USEPA (Na3 MGDA, Na4 GLDA). Application of Na2 CS3 in optimal conditions of conducting precipitation process was connected with obtaining wastewater containing low concentrations of metals (Cu 0.02 mg/L, Sn <0.01 mg/L, Ni <0.005 mg/L at pH 9.39 and Cu 0.07 mg/L, Sn <0.01 mg/L, Ni 0.006 mg/L at pH 7.79). Controlled application of Na2 CS3 by the use of a platinum redox electrode was also connected with obtaining treated wastewater containing low concentrations of metals (Cu 0.019 mg/L, Sn <0.05 mg/L, Ni <0.0098 mg/L at pH 9–9.5 and E= -142 mV in the laboratory scale and Cu 0.058 mg/L, Sn <0.005 mg/L, Ni 0.011 mg/L at pH 9.14 and E= +10 mV in the industrial scale). Changing the value of redox potential of treated wastewater by dosing Na2 CS3 made it possible to control the precipitation process on laboratory and industrial scale by the use of a platinum redox electrode. Controlled application of Na2 CS3 can be used to remove Cu(II), Ni(II) and Sn(II) from industrial effl uent containing chelating compounds like Na2 EDTA, NH3(aq), thiourea, Na3 MGDA and Na4 GLDA.
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Abstract

The study was conducted on the Biała Lądecka River which is a mountain river. It is similar to many European mountain rivers in terms of hydromorphology and catchment management. The aim of this study was to determine the bioconcentration factors of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn) in Ranunculus aquatile (L.) Dumort., Fontinalis antipyretica (L. ex Hedw.), and Lemanea fluviatilis (L.) C.Ag. The content of metals in water, sediment, and submerged plants was determined. The metal concentrations in plants can be arranged as follows: Hg < Cd < Cr < Ni < Cu < Pb <Zn. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Cr, and Cu were observed in F. antipyretica, but the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn were in R. aquatile. L. fluviatilis always contained the least amounts of heavy metals. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were lowest in L. fluviatilis and highest in F. antipyretica. Among the analyzed metals, plants accumulated the highest amount of Zn, and the least of Hg. The BCFs for Zn were from 24111 (in L. fluviatilis) to 97574 (in R. aquatile), and BCFs for Hg were from 29 (in L. fluviatilis) to 226 (in F. antipyretica).
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Abstract

In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray). The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg). In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS) were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.
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Abstract

The aim of the presented research was to analyse the pollution of the Kozłowa Góra Dam Reservoir with PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr). The investigated water and bottom sediments were sampled from two sampling points in November, 2009. The sampling points were located in the southern part of the Kozłowa Góra Dam Reservoir. The samples of bottom sediments were taken from the surface layer of 5 cm thickness. The extraction of PCBs from the bottom sediments was performed according to the EPA 3550B standard. For the sequential extraction analysis of metals from the sampled bottom sediments, the method suggested by Tessier was applied. Based on the obtained results the water and bottom sediments from the Kozłowa Góra Dam Reservoir were polluted with polychlorinated biphenyls. The highest concentration of the investigated PCB congeners in bottom sediments was determined in the sampling point No. 1 (2.78 µg/kg d.m.), whereas in the sampling point No. 2 this level was over 20-fold lower which might result from the inflow of these compounds with the waters of the Brynica river. In both sampling points the investigated bottom sediments were predominated by higher chlorinated PCBs with comparable contents of 86% and 85%, respectively. The level of pollution in the investigated bottom sediments (calculated per dry matter) with polychlorinated biphenyls did not exceed the level of TEL (< 0.02 mg/kg). The PEL value (3.5 mg/kg) was exceeded in the case of cadmium in the bottom sediment from the sampling point No. 2 and also lead (91 mg/kg) from both sampling points. The first two fractions with the mobile forms of metals are the most sensitive fractions to any changes of the environmental conditions in the benthic zone. In those fractions significant contents of lead, cadmium, nickel and zinc were observed.
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Abstract

The impacts of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metal pollution on soil microbial communities functioning were studied in soils taken from an old coke plant. The concentrations of PAHs in the tested soils ranged from 171 to 2137 mg kg-1. From the group of tested heavy metals, concentrations of lead were found to be the highest, ranging from 57 to 3478 mg kg-1, while zinc concentrations varied from 247 to 704 mg kg-1 and nickel from 10 to 666 mg kg-1. High dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were observed in the most contaminated soil. This may indicate bacterial adaptation to long-term heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination. However, the Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPPs) analysis showed that the microbial functional diversity was reduced and influenced to a higher extent by some metals (Pb, Ni), moisture and conductivity than by PAHs.
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Abstract

Samples of steam coal used in heat and power plants as well as densimetric fractions obtained on a laboratory scale by dense organic liquid separation have been examined. The contents of ash, mercury, chromium, cadmium, copper, nickel and lead have been determined in coal, in the light and medium fraction as well as in the refuse. The degree of removal of mineral matter and the examined heavy metals as well as the coal combustible parts yield have been determined. Examination of 5 coals revealed that it is possible to remove 41% of mercury and more than 35% of other heavy metals bound to mineral matter in coal.
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Abstract

Thirteen fractions of ambient dust were investigated in Zabrze, a typical urban area in the central part of Upper Silesia (Poland), during a heating season. Fifteen PAH and Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Pb contents of each fraction were determined. The dust was sampled with use of a cascade impactor and chemically analyzed with an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (PANalytical Epsilon 5) and a gas chromatograph with a flame ionisation detector (Perkin Elmer Clarus 500). The concentrations of PM1 and the PM1-related PAH and elements were much higher than the ones of the coarse dust (PM2.5-10) and the substances contained in it. The concentrations of total PAH and carcinogenic PAH were very high (the concentrations of PM1-, PM2.5-, and PM10-related BaP were 16.08, 19.19, 19.32 ng m-3, respectively). The municipal emission, resulted mainly from hard coal combustion processes, appeared to be the main factor affecting the air quality in Zabrze in winter.
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Abstract

Concentrations and elemental composition of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) ambient particles, at two sampling points located at the same urban background sites, were investigated. The points were 20 m distant from each other and at various heights (2 and 6 m) above the ground. A dichotomous sampler, equipped with a virtual impactor, and a cascade impactor were used to sample the dust. An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used in the elemental analyses. The investigations revealed heterogeneity of the spatial distribution and the elemental composition of suspended dust at the investigated urban background site. Coarse dust, whose concentration at 2.0 m above the ground was affected by secondary emission from roads, soil and other local low-level sources in some periods, appeared more heterogeneous.
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