This paper addresses problems arising from in situ measurement of gas content and temperature. Such measurements can be considered indirect. Transmittance or natural radiation of a gas is measured directly. The latter method (spectral radiation measurement) is often called spectral remote sensing. Its primary uses are in astronomy and in the measurement of atmospheric composition. In industrial processes, in situ spectroscopic measurements in the plant are often made with an open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The main difficulty in this approach is related to the calibration process, which often cannot be carried out in the manner used in the laboratory. Spectral information can be obtained from open path spectroscopic measurements using mathematical modeling, and by solving the inverse problem. Determination of gas content based on spectral measurements requires comparison of the measured and modeled spectra. This paper proposes a method for the simultaneous use of multiple lines to determine the gas content. The integrated absorptions of many spectral lines permits calculation of the average band absorption. An inverse model based on neural networks is used to determine gas content based on mid-infrared spectra at variable temperatures.
In situ monitoring of the thickness of thin diamond films during technological processes is important because it allows better control of deposition time and deeper understanding of deposition kinetics. One of the widely used techniques is laser reflectance interferometry (LRI) which enables non-contact measurement during CVD deposition. The authors have built a novel LRI system with a 405 nm laser diode which achieves better resolution compared to the systems based on He-Ne lasers, as reported so far. The system was used for in situ monitoring of thin, microcrystalline diamond films deposited on silicon substrate in PA-CVD processes. The thickness of each film was measured by stylus profilometry and spectral reflectance analysis as a reference. The system setup and interferometric signal processing are also presented for evaluating the system parameters, i.e. measurement uncertainty, resolution and the range of measurable film thickness.
Ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, is a serious disease of common and narrow-leaved ash in Europe. The resistance of individual trees seems to be important for the maintenance of ash in European forests. In this in situ wound inoculation study, the susceptibility and differences in resistance to H. fraxineus between Fraxinus excelsior and F. angustifolia clones were assessed. Neither of the tested clones revealed total resistance to ash dieback; variety between the tested clones was observed. Differences in necroses lengths were significant between clones and between two ash species. Longer necroses were formed in F. angustifolia than in F. excelsior. Some clones exhibiting some resistance to the pathogen were identified.
In the process of coal extraction, a fractured zone is developed in the overburden above the goaf. If the fractured zone is connected with an aquifer, then water inrush may occur. Hence, research and analysis of the height of overburden fractured zone (HOFZ) are of considerable significance. This study focuses on the HOFZ determination in deep coal mining. First, general deformation failure characteristics of overburden were discussed. Second, a new method, numerical simulation by orthogonal design(NSOD), have been proposed to determinate the HOFZ in deep coal mining. Third, the validity of NSOD is verified in the practical application, compared with empiric al formula in Chinese Regulations and in-situ test. These three methods were applied to determine the HOFZ of working face No. 111303 in No. 5 coal mine. The pre dicted HOFZ of NSOD is found to be similar to the result of the in-situ test (8.9% relative error), whereas the HOFZ calculated by the empirical formula has extremely large error (25.7% relative error). Results show that the NSOD can reliably predict the HOFZ in deep coal mining and reduce time and expenses required for in-situ test.
The present contribution reports on the rheological investigations concerning influence of high hydrostatic pressure on the molecular structure of gelatin gels. For the purpose of the study, a torsional shear wave rheometer for in-situ investigations of viscoelastic substances under high pressure was developed. Small amplitude vibrations generated by piezoelectric elements are used to determine the storage modulus of the investigated medium. The system is able to stand pressures up to 300 MPa. The experiments have been carried out with household gelatin (0.1 w/w aqueous solution). The gelification curves revealed similar time course. However, the values of G0 obtained for the gels curing 300 minutes under 100 MPa and 200 MPa were observed to be respectively 2.1 and 4 times higher than at ambient conditions. The increased number of triple helix junction zones is hypothesised to be the cause of this phenomenon as a result of reinforcement of the hydrogen bonds due to pressure. An attempt to cognize the characteristic dimensions of the molecular structure based on the theory of rubber elasticity is made.
Refinement is one of the most energy consuming technological process, aimed at obtaining mineral raw materials of the proper grain size. Cast structural elements such as jaws or hammers in crushing machines operate under conditions of an intensive wear. The data indicate that 80 % of failures of machines and devices is caused by wearing of rubbing surfaces. This problem became the subject of several scientific and industrial investigations carried out in the whole world in order to produce materials ultra- wear resistant. Methods allowing to obtain wear resistant composite castings are discussed in the hereby paper. Within the performed research microstructures of the produced composite zones were presented and the comparative analysis with regard to mechanical and functional properties of local composite reinforcements in relation to the commercial alloys of increased wear resistance was performed. The results show almost twenty five times increase in wear resistance compared to manganese cast steel containing 18 % Mn.
The study presents the results of research on the development of composite zones in castings based on the intermetallic phase of Ni3Al. Composite zones were obtained by placing packets with substrates for the reaction of titanium carbide in a foundry mould. To provide a variable carbides content in the composite zone, two compositions of the packets were prepared. The first packet contained only substrates for the reaction of TiC synthesis; the second one also contained a filler. The resulting composite zones in castings were examined for the filler effect on changes in the volume fraction, size and morphology of carbides in the zone. In addition, the effect of filler on the mechanical properties of the zone was verified, observing changes of Vickers hardness in this area. It was found that the presence of filler in the composition of the packet for synthesis reduced the content of carbides, as well as their size and morphology. Lower surface content of carbides reduced hardness of the zone, which enabled smooth control of the mechanical properties. At the same time, the use of the selected filler did not disturb the course of the TiC carbide synthesis.
In order to increase wear resistance cast steel casting the TiC-Fe-Cr type composite zones were fabricated. These zones were obtained by means of in situ synthesis of substrates of the reaction TiC with a moderator of a chemical composition of white cast iron with nickel of the Ni-Hard type 4. The synthesis was carried out directly in the mould cavity. The moderator was applied to control the reactive infiltration occurring during the TiC synthesis. The microstructure of composite zones was investigated by electron scanning microscopy, using the backscattered electron mode. The structure of composite zones was verified by the X-ray diffraction method. The hardness of composite zones, cast steel base alloy and the reference samples such as white chromium cast iron with 14 % Cr and 20 % Cr, manganese cast steel 18 % Mn was measured by Vickers test. The wear resistance of the composite zone and the reference samples examined by ballon-disc wear test. Dimensionally stable composite zones were obtained containing submicron sizes TiC particles uniformly distributed in the matrix. The macro and microstructure of the composite zone ensured three times hardness increase in comparison to the cast steel base alloy and one and a half times increase in comparison to the white chromium cast iron 20 % Cr. Finally ball-on-disc wear rate of the composite zone was five times lower than chromium white cast iron containing 20 % Cr.
We made interspecific crosses to facilitate the introgression of desirable traits of Allium roylei into the Alliumcepa genome. After hand-pollination, 906 interspecific F1Allium cepa × A. roylei plants were obtained by in vitro culture via embryo rescue. Nuclear DNA analysis showed that 97.6% of the regenerants were interspecific F1Allium cepa × A. roylei hybrids. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) showed that each hybrid had 16 chromosomes, eight of which were identified as A. cepa and eight as A. roylei chromosomes.
Triploid viviparous onions [Allium x cornutum Clementi ex Visiani 1842, syn Allium cepa L. var. viviparum Metzg. (Alef.), auct.] (2n = 3x = 24), are known in some countries only as rare relict crops. In other parts of the world they are still traditionally or even commercially cultivated. In previous cytogenetic studies of the Croatian triploid viviparous onion Ljutika, Giemsa C-banding, chromosome pairing analysis during meiosis, and genomic hybridization in situ indicated a complex hybrid with highly heterozygous karyotype structure, with possible triparental genome organization. This study continues an analysis of the karyotype structure of Ljutika. Staining with fluorochromes CMA3 (Chromomycin A3) and Dapi (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) confirmed previous results from Giemsa C-banding and revealed GC-rich heterochromatic regions associated mainly with chromosome ends and nucleolus organizing regions (NORs), and only a few interstitial bands. Fish mapping of the ribosomal 18S-5.8S-26S genes revealed two major rDNA signals on the short arms of two subtelocentric satellite chromosomes in almost all metaphase plates of Ljutika. The largest subtelocentric chromosome lacked rDNA signals. A significantly smaller rDNA signal was occasionally located on one small submetacentric chromosome. These results are in agreement with previously published results from identification of NORs by silver-staining technique, which confirmed a maximum three nucleoli in interphase nuclei. We discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying rearrangements and activity of ribosomal genes in the triploid karyotype.
Q235 steel is widely used in engineering and construction. Therefore, it is important to identify the damage mechanism and the acoustic emission (AE) response of the material to ensure the safety of structures. In this study, an AE monitor system and an in situ tensile test with an optical microscope were used to investigate the AE response and insight into the damage process of Q235 steel. The surface of the specimen was polished and etched before the test in order to improve the quality of micrographs. Two kinds of AE responses, namely a burst and a continuous signal, were recorded by the AE monitor system during the test. Based on the in situ test, it was observed that the damage of Q235 steel was induced by the crystal slip and the inclusion fracture. Since the crystal slip was an ongoing process, continuous AE signals were produced, while burst AE signals were possibly produced by the inclusion fracture which occurred suddenly with released higher energy. In addition, a great number of AE signals with high amplitude were observed during the yielding stage and then the number and amplitude decreased.
The methane hazard is one of the most dangerous phenomena in hard coal mining. In a certain range of concentrations, methane is flammable and explosive. Therefore, in order to maintain the continuity of the production process and the safety of work for the crew, various measures are taken to prevent these concentration levels from being exceeded. A significant role in this process is played by the forecasting of methane concentrations in mine headings. This very problem has been the focus of the present article. Based on discrete measurements of methane concentration in mine headings and ventilation parameters, the distribution of methane concentration levels in these headings was forecasted. This process was performed on the basis of model-based tests using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The methodology adopted was used to develop a structural model of the region under analysis, for which boundary conditions were adopted on the basis of the measurements results in real-world conditions. The analyses conducted helped to specify the distributions of methane concentrations in the region at hand and determine the anticipated future values of these concentrations. The results obtained from model-based tests were compared with the results of the measurements in realworld conditions. The methodology using the CFD and the results of the tests offer extensive possibilities of their application for effective diagnosis and forecasting of the methane hazard in mine headings.