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Abstract

The impacts of industrial wastewater contamination on the geotechnical properties of clayey soil have been studied in the research presented in this paper. The contaminant in question is industrial wastewater released from Thi-Qar oil refinery as a by-product of production, and the soil samples obtained from Thi-Qar oil refinery plant in Al-Nassyriah (a city located in the south of Iraq). The geotechnical properties of contaminated soil samples were compared with those of intact soil to measure the effects of such a contaminant. The soil samples were obtained from three locations in the study area; representing the highly contaminated area, the slightly contaminated area, and the intact area used as a reference for comparison of test results. The results of the tests showed that the contaminant causes an increase of natural moisture content, field unit weight, Atterberg’s limits, and maximum dry unit weight, as well as an increase of the compression index and the coefficient of vertical consolidation. Also, the contaminant causes a decrease in specific gravity, the optimum moisture content initial void ratio, the swelling index, the coefficient of permeability, and cohesion between soil particles.
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Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of the determination of the effects of temperature on the efficiency of the nitrification process of industrial wastewater, as well as its toxicity to the test organisms. The study on nitrification efficiency was performed using wastewater from one of Polish chemical factories. The chemical factory produces nitrogen fertilizers and various chemicals. The investigated wastewater was taken from the influent to the industrial mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The WWTP guaranteed high removal efficiency of organic compounds defined as chemical oxygen demand (COD) but periodical failure of nitrification performance was noted in last years of the WWTP operation. The research aim was to establish the cause of recurring failures of nitrification process in the above mentioned WWTP. The tested wastewater was not acutely toxic to activated sludge microorganisms. However, the wastewater was genotoxic to activated sludge microorganisms and the genotoxicity was greater in winter than in spring time. Analysis of almost 3 years’ period of the WWTP operation data and laboratory batch tests showed that activated sludge from the WWTP under study is very sensitive to temperature changes and the nitrification efficiency collapses rapidly under 16°C. Additionally, it was calculated that in order to provide the stable nitrification, in winter period the sludge age (SRT) in the WWTP should be higher than 35 days.
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