The article presents the architectural heritage created as a part of the Central Industrial District in the context of the need for its preservation and protection. Presented are selected topics and problems associated with the current technical condition of both industrial and residential buildings. The analysis contain also the impact of modern conservation doctrines and their ability to preserve works of COP’s architecture with the specific conditions of ownership, poor awareness of users and owners, and a large shortage of historical planning sources.
Mineral fillers are mainly utilized in the production of printing and writing papers (P&W) to improve their optical features and their vulnerability to printing. With the high cost of pulp, the aim of their introduction has been to increase mineral loading in paper and reduce the overall cost of production. For many years the only method of paper formation was acid technology, while the only raw material of choice for filling and coating paper and cardboard was kaolin (in the beginning of the 1970s it was 80% of fillers and 94% of coating grades used in Western Europe, while in the USA – 92% and 96%, respectively). The onset on new methods of acid-free (alkaline) paper forming caused a drastic reduction in the kaolin demand for cost-competitive calcium carbonate: GCC – Ground Calcium Carbonate) and PCC – Precipitated Calcium Carbonate. This also resulted from the progressive self-destruction of machine-made acid papers. In 2013, the share of calcium carbonate in the total production of fillers was 83%, while kaolin accounted for 10%, and talc – 7%. The article presents the parameters of principal mineral fillers for the paper industry and the main reasons why they are suitable for particular kinds of paper. Kaolin, due to the platy nature of its main mineral constituent – kaolinite, is preferred in multiple coating papers. The choice of GCC is beneficial because of its low price and properties (especially whiteness). PCC , due to the possibility of shape and particle size modification serves as filler in uncoated woodfree papers, the key features of which are expected to be lightness and opacity. Size distribution is the main difference between PCC and GCC . The article also presents tendencies observed over the last several years in the paper market in Poland, i.e. in a significant growth in coated paper and board for packaging, as well as the decreasing demand for newspaper, which is a consequence of progressive digitalization.
The article presents the urban layout, which is a best-preserved example of industrial estates in northern Italy. The subject of the research is a public space of the Crespi d’Adda settlement in the Province of Bergamo in Lombardy. Particular attention is paid to green areas occurring there, and their current use. Program of the public areas was very varied. The main role, besides the factory, held the public park, which is an important compositional and ideological. element of the layout. Research task was to show on example of Crespi, the current situation of former settlements in northern Italy, which are for the author reference material for settlements analyzed in Poland.
The aspect of climate change in the modern world is one of the broader issues of global social and economic policy. Climate change implies a modification of the business environment, especially the energy sector. Any change in the conditions in which the company operates is the cause, the effect of which becomes its financial situation during the relevant period. Therefore, climate policy will play an increasingly important role in shaping the energy of the future. At present, energy companies are taking measures to process primary energy from fossil fuels, in particular coal, in an efficient and environmentally friendly way. The article presents the impact of international climate agreements on the energy and coal industries. The latest agreement signed in Paris defines a global plan to minimize the dangerous effects of global warming on the climate arising from carbon emissions. The most important outcome of the agreement was the unification of many countries with a common goal. The European Union played a key role in signing the first legally binding agreement in the world, which is also a forerunner in the carbon trading system: EU ETS (European Union Emission Trading Scheme) The US-based CO2 emissions trading system has become a model for the European Commission. In addition, the article highlights the correlation between the EUA ( European Union Allowances) and “ARA coal” prices as well as the role of the coal market in price formation of emission allowances.
The article discusses the problem with modifications of plans of water areas and the forms of their borders which have been inscribed into the history of all city structures related to water. It can be observed that the modifications made in recent decades very often concern the transformations of former industrial sites. Many such structural changes are taking place within signifi cant areas which have fragmented central parts of cities and created voids in the urban fabric. They are being applied to many former shipyards and ports. Research shows that the formation of new connections between land and water in these transformation processes is essential. More frequently, those conversions that are currently being realized change the constructions of wharves and lead to the development of plans drawing new borders between land and water. In these cases water is introduced into land areas and new land surfaces are being created over existing bodies of water. These operations can be considered extremely valuable in achieving the intended eff ects of transformations of post-industrial areas. They are perceived as an excellent possibility to strengthen the relationship between the city structure and water. At the same time they create an opportunity to achieve a high quality of architectural and landscape solutions and the quality of spaces in both social and economic terms.
The possibility of construction disputes can be reduced, but they cannot be avoided due to the uncertain and risky nature of the building industry. Conflicts between construction parties often have very unfavourable effects, such as cost increases, poor construction quality and time extension in the schedule. Lots of studies have been carried out in order to try and avoid these disagreements. However, there are no common resolution tools or techniques due to the improving conditions and scope of contracted works. Advanced methods and dispute reasons should be fully monitored and updated for the applicable solutions. This paper discusses the current major constructional dispute reasons in Turkey. The questionnaire method was applied within the scope of this study. The questionnaire documents were randomly distributed to 80 contractors to analyse major dispute reasons in Turkey. Analysis of the questionnaire results indicates that the major current dispute causes are poor quality of performed works, delays in progress payments, inefficient site management, poorly written contracts and design mistakes.
This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.
The extraction of mineral deposits is usually charged with additional taxes or royalty fees that go beyond the general income tax. As a rule, countries prefer stable sources of fiscal revenues based on the volume of raw material extraction, and investors prefer models based on profit tax, i.e. taking operating costs and risks lower than the expected profitability of the project into account. As a rule, too high a burden for the mining sector affects investors’ decisions regarding the introduction of new investments. There are a number of examples where excessive fiscal burdens force investors to move to countries with more favorable tax systems. An analysis of various forms of taxation of mining enterprises around the world has been presented and compared with the system implemented in Poland. Usually, the countries that apply the royalty fee in the mining sector at the same time introduce a number of adaptation mechanisms. This is crucial for new investments due to the fact that they may to some extent compensate for the high costs of transition from the investment to the operational phase. In most cases, several incentive mechanisms are used at the same time, e.g. the accelerated settlement of investment expenditures and the unlimited settlement of losses. The copper and silver mining tax introduced in Poland increased the discounted effective tax rate (ETR) from 38.5% to 89% for the entire investment period, which resulted in a 11-year return on investment, as well as a drop in the internal rate of return (IRR).There are currently no mechanisms in Poland which would balance the burden of this tax for a new investor. In order to balance the extraction tax for certain minerals in terms of the IRR and ETR key indicators, the introduction of several adaptation mechanisms has been proposed. For new investments the most essential mechanism is the preferential settlement of capital expenditures incurred in the pre-production phase of an investment. The others include accelerated amortization, the ability to deduct certain expenses for the exploration phase from the tax base, along with an extended tax loss settlement period, or a mechanism for deducting a certain percentage of investment expenses directly from the tax.
This paper points out assumptions and reasons for using digital technologies, the importance of using digital technologies in teaching and management. It also refers to the digital technologies and digital competences as an essential part of the competency model of a teaching staff in education. It also points out the fact that existing competency models need to be further explored, decomposed, and formulated as an illustration by the digital competences extensions.
Natural resources and the extractive industries play a central role in the economy of developing countries and the lives of nearly half of the world’s population. The increasing demand for oil, gas, and mineral resources has led some countries to prioritize the extractive industries; yet, there is growing empirical evidence that in some cases governments have neglected other sectors of the economy, making them highly dependent and vulnerable to volatile commodity prices. Latin American countries face the challenge of changing their model of primary-export specialization and move away from their dependence on natural resource-intensive exports in order to avoid being vulnerable to commodity cycles. In this context, given the limited literature available on measuring the dependence on the extraction of oil, gas and minerals of the Ecuadorian economy, the objective of this article is to twofold. First, to provide a snapshot of the historical and current situation of Ecuador’s natural resource dependence. Second, to estimate the Extractives Dependence Index (EDI) scores for Ecuador for the years 2003 to 2017. The EDI is a generally accepted method for measuring a country’s aggregate dependence on natural and mineral resources. Based on the EDI scores obtained, we analyze the variation of this indicator and investigate the effect of extractives dependence on the Ecuadorian economy. Results show that despite the government’s significant efforts to diversify Ecuador’s economy, the country has a persistent dependence on the extractive sector.
Post-industrial areas are an area of concentration, penetration and shaping the economic, social and environmental zone. The strategic goal of transforming post-industrial areas should be to obtain a new, dynamic and favorable state of equilibrium for a given area, as well as its surroundings after cessation of operations. The purpose of the article is to indicate the possibility of adaptation of post-industrial areas, especially after exploitation of the mineral, to perform new functions. The direction and the purpose of the recultivation and planning actions to a large extent may be influenced by specific social and economic conditions affecting the competitiveness of each and individually treated fragment of space.
The article presents the representative examples of modernist villas built as a part of patronage housing estates raised during the erection of the Central Industrial District. The author describes building’s functional solutions and their architectural shape and highlight their role in urban systems. Analysis of selected examples characterize mechanisms of creative processes as well as the associations which influenced their forming. The villas from the areas of the most important COP’s investments have similar ideological architectural workshop, despite differences in their formal appear. Their aesthetic, functional and esthetic attributes are part of a multi-dimensional architectural heritage of the Central Industrial District.
Elaborated shapes of many car components are the reason for which the use of casting techniques to fabricate them is a solution wellfounded from the economical point of view. Currently applicable regulatory requirements concerning emissions of exhaust fumes force the carmakers to reduce the overall weight of their products, as this is a basic precondition for reducing fuel consumption. As a result, newly launched car models contain a continuously increasing share of thin-walled castings made of materials which ensure a satisfactory level of service properties. At the same time, developing new technological processes allowing to extend the service life of individual components by means of surface improving becomes more and more important.
Aluminium is one of the main soil components. Usually it is a part of non-toxic aluminosilicates but in low pH values its mobility is higher and - especially in monomeric form is toxic for plants. Selenium is an essential element necessary for animals and humans. Its compounds have anticancer and anti mutagenic character. However, its high uptake from environment, e.g. with food or water could lead to various diseases including embryonic deformity, decreased hatchling survival and death to aquatic organisms. Soil contamination with aluminium leads to disturbances in plant growth as a result of low calcium and magnesium uptake. High concentrations of selenium lead to its accumulation in plant tissues what is the beginning of selenium fate in food chain. In this work a cultivated layer of soils located near five industry plants in the town of Opole (southern Poland) were investigated. Aluminium and selenium content in soils is an effect of two factors: its natural occurrence in rocks (natural content) and human activity - especially chemicals from agriculture, industrial and transport pollutants. Aluminium was determined in the range of 3440 to 14804 mg/kg d.w. Obtained results of selenium concentration covered the range from 27.1 to 958.1 μg/kg d.w. These results are slightly higher than concentrations noted in natural or non-polluted soils, but still low. These amounts of selenium could have more positive than negative effects. Aluminium and selenium concentrations were discussed concurrently with base soils parameters, such as pH, EC and granulometric fractions composition.
The relatively limited application of lean in the food process industries has been attributed to the unique characteristics of the food sector i.e. short shelf-life, heterogeneous raw materials, and seasonality. Moreover, barriers such as large and inflexible machinery, long setup time, and resource complexity, has limited the implementation and impact of lean practices in process industries in general. Contrary to the expectations in the literature, we bring in this paper a successful experience of lean implementation in a company of the food-processing sector. By focusing on two lean tools (VSM and SMED), the company reduced changeover time by 34%, and increased the production capacity of the main production line by 11%. This improvement enabled the company to avoid the use of temporary workers by extending the worktime of its workforce during peak months. Moreover, the reduction of setup time avoided the use of large lot size in production, which, in turn, reduced the total cycle time of production and the incidence of quality problems.
An elaborate study executed in the direction of exploring energy saving potential shows that more than 20% of electrical energy used in industry is used for pump systems. Experts calculate that more than 30% of this energy can be saved by improving control and diagnosis for pump systems. Unfortunately, the application ratio of such system is small and consequently a large demand for such technological advanced systems can still be observed in the pump industry. Because of this reason and still growing demand of saving energy in industry, two Universities in Germany and Switzerland together with leading German pump manufacturer decided to join their knowledge and skill to work on the project called "Smart Pump". This paper presents one of the first results of this project, which goal is the development of future control methods and diagnosis systems for intelligent pumps.
Industry 4.0 and the associated idea of society 4.0 pose specific challenges for the concept of sustainable development. These challenges relate, inter alia, to responsibility, in which the changes to date have overall entailed: • a transition from ex post responsibility to ex ante responsibility (H. Jonas); • a transition from individual responsibility to corporate social responsibility. In the context of society 4.0 there is a need for shared responsibility. The problem of justice and therefore the implementation of sustainable development not only becomes an open problem, but also requires constant updating and specifi c optimisation.
The article is a part of materials regarding current problems of Polish science and higher education. It provides an in-depth analysis of the Act on degrees and academic titles as well as several other laws which introduce the so-called Ph.D. implementation in Poland. These laws were adopted by the Sejm of the Republic of Poland in April 2017. The author focuses on several problems, discussing them in separate chapters. The article also tries to predict the far-reaching results of the new rules. At the same time, the author proposes specific solutions that should be included in the future in the Act on degrees and academic titles, or in the Act of industrial property. They should eliminate the negative effects of conflicts between the provisions of various legal acts.
The article indicates the potential of revitalization activities in the process of building the image of the city, associated also with its “brand”. It shows the role of city-marketing to create a city product, connected to the development of the cultural industries and the urban tourism. The article indicates common areas between the revitalization process and the creating the city brand, focusing on Gdańsk. Two main documents are taken into account: Brand Strategy Gdańsk until 2013 and Program for the development and promotion of the product off er of Gdańsk and the region in the 2014-2020 perspective. The article shows different types of revitalization activities aff ecting the image of Gdańsk, including: the spectacular investments in postindustrial areas, as well as residents’ and independent organizations’ activities, aiming to transform and to promote neglected, but valuable, areas of the city.
The paper includes validation studies of the flow module of the NovaFlow&Solid simulation code. Experiments of ductile iron and gray iron casting in a spiral test of castability were carried out. Casting experiments were then carried out in industrial conditions in the Ferrex Foundry in Poznań and the results are the castability spiral length and local cast iron rate during mould cavity pouring. Simulation tests using NovaFlow&Solid Control Volume code were made. The technological castability test was used to determine thermal-physical data through simplified inversion problem. Influence of physical parameters in the database of simulation code on the spiral length obtained as the result of simulation was analyzed. It was found that critical fraction of capillary flow CLFdown has the biggest impact on cast iron castability in the simulation code. The simulations resulted in defining parameters of gray iron GJL 250 and ductile iron GJS-400-15. For the parameters set, the length of castability spiral in simulations was in accordance with casting experiments.
The Polish power generation system is based mostly on coal-fired power plants. Therefore, the coal mining sector is strongly sensitive to changes in the energy sector, of which decarbonization is the crucial one. The EU Emission Trading System (EU ETS) requires power generating companies to purchase European Emission Allowances (EUAs), whose prices have recently soared. They have a direct impact on the cost efficiency of hard coal-fired power generation, hence influence the consumption of hard coal on the power sector. In this context, the objective of this paper is to estimate the hard coal consumption in various regions of Poland under selected forecasts of the EUA price. To investigate this question, two models are employed: - the PolPower_LR model that simulates the Polish power generation system, - the FSM _LR model that optimizes hard coal supplies. Three scenarios differentiated by the EUA price are designed for this study. In the first one, the average EUA price from 2014–2017 is assumed. In the second and third, the EUA prices are assumed accordingly to the NPS and the SDS scenario of the World Energy Outlook. In this study we consider only existing, modernized, under construction and announced coal-fired power generation units. The results of the study indicate that regardless of the scenario, a drop in hard coal consumption by power generation units is observed in the entire period of analysis. However, the dynamics of these changes differ. The results of this analysis prove that the volume of hard coal consumption may differ by even 136 million Mg (in total) depending on the EUA prices development scenario. The highest cumulated volume of hard coal consumption is observed in the Opolski, Radomski and Sosnowiecki region, regardless of the considered scenario.
In the article problems related to human labor and factors affecting the increasing use of industrial robots are discussed. Since human factors affect the production processes stability, robots are preferred to apply. The application of robots is characterized by higher performance and reliability comparing to human labor. The problem is how to determine the real difference in work efficiency between human operator and robot. The aim of the study is to develop a method that allows clearly definition of productivity growth associated with the replacement of human labor by industrial robots. Another aim of the paper is how to model robotized and manual operated workstation in a computer simulation software. Analysis of the productivity and reliability of the hydraulic press workstation operated by the human operator or an industrial robot, are presented. Simulation models have been developed taking into account the availability and reliability of the machine, operator and robot. We apply OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) indicator to present how availability and reliability parameters influence over performance of the workstation, in the longer time. Simplified financial analysis is presented considering different labor costs in EU countries.
The high mechanical properties of the Al-Li-X alloys contribute to their increasingly broad application in aeronautics, as an alternative forthe aluminium alloys, which have been used so far. The aluminium-lithium alloys have a lower specific gravity, a higher nucleation andcrack spread resistance, a higher Young’s module and they characterize in a high crack resistance at lower temperatures. The aim of theresearch planned in this work was to design an aluminium alloy with a content of lithium and other alloy elements. The research includedthe creation of a laboratorial melt, the microstructure analysis with the use of light microscopy, the application of X-ray methods to identify the phases existing in the alloy, and the microhardness test.
The profile of the Polish foundry engineer in the Industry 4.0 age is presented in the present paper. The presented results were obtained by means of three research methods consisting of: analyses of professional expertise documents, questionnaires filled-up by the executive staff of foundry enterprises and analyses of work offers for the foundry engineer position. The investigations indicated the key competences of the foundry engineer, demanded currently by employers and meeting the requirements of the Polish foundry sector. The obtained results were discussed in relation to the fourth industrial revolution and its requirements with regard to the engineering staff. This concept is based on information technology and robotizing, which means the total automation of industrial production processes as well as the widespread access to data and machines. Such an approach requires changes in applied machines, technologies and employees’ competencies. The competences of employees constitute the element deciding on the company success, aimed at obtaining a competitive advantage. Therefore adjusting the employees’ competencies to continuously changing reality is so essential.
Eco-friendly leather processes based on the usage of natural products have become a potentially attractive issue for leather industry during the last few decades. Synthetic protective chemicals like bactericides used in most soaking process are known as hazardous substances and cause tannery effluents with high concentrations of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). In the present study, the effect of tannic acid on microorganisms, skin, wool and effluent were investigated in order to demonstrate the applicability of tannic acid in soaking process instead of commonly used bactericides. The bacterial load (cfu/ml), COD and Nitrogen Content (N) of the soaking effluents and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) content of skins and wools were investigated. Application of 0.5 and 1 wt% tannic acid concentrations was more effective than commercial bactericide, while comparable results were achieved by 0.1 and 0.3 wt% tannic acid. The application of tannic acid for soaking process resulted in lower COD and N values of effluents. The results show that tannic acid has the potential to be an alternative, eco-friendly bactericide for leather industry by reducing the pollution of leather soaking process.