The pharmacokinetics of a diclofenac sodium was investigated in swine. A single intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 5% diclofenac sodium (concentration = 2.5 mg · kg-1) was administered to 8 healthy pigs according to a two-period crossover design. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis with DAS2.1.1 software. After a single i.v. administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters of diclofenac sodium injection in swine were as follows: the elimination half-time (T1/2β) was 1.32±0.34 h; the area under the curve (AUC) was (55.50±5.50 μg · mL-1 h; the mean residence time (MRT) was 1.60±0.28 h; the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was 0.50±0.05 L · kg-1; and the body clearance (CLB) was 0.26±0.04 L · (h · kg)-1. After the single i.m. administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: peak time (Tmax) was 1.19±0.26 h; and peak concentration (Cmax) was 11.61±5.99 μg mL-1. The diclofenac sodium has the following pharmacokinetic characteristics in swine: rapid absorption and elimination; high peak concentration; and bioavailability.
When identifying the conditions required for the sustainable and long-term exploitation of geothermal resources it is very important to assess the dynamics of processes linked to the formation, migration and deposition of particles in geothermal systems. Such particles often cause clogging and damage to the boreholes and source reservoirs. Solid particles: products of corrosion processes, secondary precipitation from geothermal water or particles from the rock formations holding the source reservoir, may settle in the surface installations and lead to clogging of the injection wells. The paper proposes a mathematical model for changes in the absorbance index and the water injection pressure required over time. This was determined from the operating conditions for a model system consisting of a doublet of geothermal wells (extraction and injection well) and using the water occurring in Liassic sandstone structures in the Polish Lowland. Calculations were based on real data and conditions found in the Skierniewice GT-2 source reservoir intake. The main product of secondary mineral precipitation is calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite and calcite. It has been demonstrated that clogging of the active zone causes a particularly high surge in injection pressure during the fi rst 24 hours of pumping. In subsequent hours, pressure increases are close to linear and gradually grow to a level of ~2.2 MPa after 120 hours. The absorbance index decreases at a particularly fast rate during the fi rst six hours (Figure 4). Over the period of time analysed, its value decreases from over 42 to approximately 18 m3/h/MPa after 120 hours from initiation of the injection. These estimated results have been confi rmed in practice by real-life investigation of an injection well. The absorbance index recorded during the hydrodynamic tests decreased to approximately 20 m3/h/MPa after 120 hours.
A lot of methods for sensorless drive control have been published last years for synchronous and asynchronous machines. One of the approaches uses high frequency carrier injection for position control. The injected high frequency signal is controlled to remain in alignment with the saliency produced by the saturation of the main flux. Due to the fact that it does not use the fundamental machine model which fails at standstill of the magnetic field it is possible to control the drive even at zero speed. In spite of this obvious advantage industry does not apply sensorless control in their products. This is due to the dependency of many published methods on physical parameters of the machine. The high frequency carrier injection method, presented in this paper, does not need to have exact machine parameters and it can be used for machines where there is only a very small rotor anisotropy like in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (SMPMSM) . Standard drives usually are supplied by a 6-pulse diode rectifier. Due to new European directives concerning the harmonic content in the mains it is expected that the use of controlled pulse-width modulated PWM rectifiers will be enforced in the future . An important advantage of this type of rectifiers is the regeneration of the energy back to the grid. Another benefit are low harmonics in comparison to diode rectifiers. Using one of many control methods published so far it is also possible to achieve almost unity power factor. However, in these methods voltage sensors are necessary to synchronize PWM rectifiers with the mains. Therefore they are not very popular in the industry with respect to the cost and the lack of reliability. Recently a control method was proposed which is based on a tracking scheme. It does not need any voltage sensor on the ac-side of the rectifier and it does not need to know accurate parameters of the system. This paper presents the control solution for a cheap, industry friendly (no additional hardware and installation effort) drive system. The phase tracking method for control of electrical drive and PWM rectifier is described. Encouraging experimental results are shown.
This study investigated the microstructure and high temperature oxidation properties of Fe-25Cr-20Ni-1.5Nb, HK30 alloy manufactured by metal injection molding (MIM) process. The powder used in MIM had a bi-modal size distribution of 0.11 and 9.19 μm and had a spherical shape. The initial powder consisted of γ-Fe and Cr23C6 phases. Microstructural observation of the manufactured (MIMed) HK30 alloy confirmed Cr23C6 along the grain boundary of the γ-Fe matrix, and NbC was distributed evenly on the grain boundary and in the grain. After a 24-hour high temperature oxidation test at air atmospheres of 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, the oxidation weight measured 0.72, 1.11 and 2.29 mg/cm,2 respectively. Cross-sectional observation of the oxidation specimen identified a dense Cr2O3 oxide layer at 1000°C condition, and the thickness of the oxide layer increased as the oxidation temperature increased. At 1100°C and 1200°C oxidation temperatures, Fe-rich oxide was also formed on the dense Cr2O3 oxide layer. Based on the above findings, this study identified the high-temperature oxidation mechanism of HK30 alloy manufactured by MIM.
Tool travel and tool switch planning are the two major issues in hole-making operations of industrial part which involves drilling, tapping etc. operations. It is necessary to find the sequence of operations, which minimizes the total non productive time and tool switch time of hole-making operations depending upon the hole location and the tool sequence to be followed. In this work, an attempt is made to reduce total non-productive time and tool switch time of hole-making operations by applying a relatively new algorithm known as shuffled frog leaping with modification for the determination of optimal sequence of operations. In order to validate the developed shuffled frog leaping algorithm with modification, it is applied on six different problems of holes and its obtained results are compared with dynamic programming (DP), ant colony algorithm (ACO), and immune based evolutionary approach (IA). In addition, an application example of injection mould is considered in this work to demonstrate the proposed approach. The result obtained by shuffled frog leaping algorithm with modification is compared with those obtained using ACO, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and IA. It is observed that the results obtained by shuffled frog leaping algorithm with modification are superior to those obtained using ACO, PSO and IA for the application example presented.
The Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) scheme is a statistical/physical secure key exchange system based on the laws of classical statistical physics to provide unconditional security. We used the LTSPICE industrial cable and circuit simulator to emulate one of the major active (invasive) attacks, the current injection attack, against the ideal and a practical KLJN system, respectively. We show that two security enhancement techniques, namely, the instantaneous voltage/current comparison method, and a simple privacy amplification scheme, independently and effectively eliminate the information leak and successfully preserve the system’s unconditional security.
Metallic fuel slugs containing rare-earth (RE) elements have high reactivity with quartz (SiO2) molds, and a reaction layer with a considerable thickness is formed at the surface of metallic fuel slugs. The surface characterization of metallic fuel slugs is essential for safety while operating a fast reactor at elevated temperature. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the surface characteristics of the fuel slugs so that chemical interaction between fuel slug and cladding can be minimized in the reactor. When the Si element causes a eutectic reaction with the cladding, it deteriorates the metallic fuel slugs. Thus, it is necessary to examine the characteristics of the surface reaction layer to prevent the reaction of the metallic fuel slugs. In this study, we investigated the metallurgical characteristics of the surface reaction layer of fabricated U-10wt.%Zr-Xwt.%RE (X = 0, 5, 10) fuel slugs using injection casting. The results showed that the thickness of the surface reaction layer increased as the RE content of the metallic fuel slugs increased. The surface reaction layer of the metallic fuel slug was mainly formed by RE, Zr and the Si, which diffused in the quartz mold.
U-10wt.%Zr metallic fuel slugs containing rare-earth (RE: a rare-earth alloy comprising 53% Nd, 25% Ce, 16% Pr and 6% La) elements for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were fabricated by modified injection casting as an alternative method. The distribution, size and composition of the RE inclusions in the metallic fuel slugs were investigated according to the content of the RE inclusions. There were no observed casting defects, such as shrunk pipes, micro-shrinkage or hot tears formed during solidification, in the metallic fuel slugs fabricated by modified injection casting. Scanning electron micrographs and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) showed that the Zr and RE inclusions were uniformly distributed in the matrix and the composition of the RE inclusions was similar to that of a charged RE element. The content and the size of the RE inclusions increased slightly according to the charge content of the RE elements. RE inclusions in U-Zr alloys will have a positive effect on fuel performance due to their micro-size and high degree of distribution.
Ceramic injection moulding and gas pressure infiltration were employed for the manufacturing of alumina/AlSi10Mg composites. Porous ceramic preforms were prepared by mixing alumina powder with a multi-binder system and injection moulding of the powder polymer slurry. Then, the organic part was removed through a combination of solvent and thermal debinding, and the materials were finally sintered at different temperatures. The ceramic preforms manufactured in this way were infiltrated by an AlSi10Mg alloy. The microstructure and properties of the manufactured materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry and bending strength testing. The results of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations show that the fabricated composite materials are characterised by the percolation type of the microstructure and a lack of unfilled pores with good cohesion at the metal-ceramic interfaces. This is surprising considering that over 30% of the pores are smaller than 1 μm. The results show that the bending strength of the obtained composites decreased with increasing sintering temperature of the porous preforms.
SI engines are highly susceptible to excess emissions when started at low ambient temperatures. This phenomenon has multiple air quality and climate forcing implications. Direct injection petrol engines feature a markedly different fuelling strategy, and so their emissions behaviour is somewhat different from indirect injection petrol engines. The excess emissions of direct injection engines at low ambient temperatures should also differ. Additionally, the direct injection fuel delivery process leads to the formation of PM, and DISI engines should show greater PM emissions at low ambient temperatures. This study reports on laboratory experiments quantifying excess emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants over a legislative driving cycle following cold start at a low ambient temperature for both engine types. Over the legislative cycle for testing at -7°C (the UDC), emissions of HC, CO, NOx and CO2 were higher when tested at -7°C than at 24°C. Massive increases in emissions of HC and CO were observed, together with more modest increases in NOx and CO2 emissions. Results from the entire driving cycle showed excess emissions in both phases (though they were much larger for the UDC). The DISI vehicle showed lower increases in fuel consumption than the port injected vehicles, but greater increases in emission of HC and CO. DISI particle number emissions increased by around 50%; DISI particle mass by over 600%. The observed emissions deteriorations varied somewhat by engine type and from vehicle to vehicle. Excesses were greatest following start-up, but persisted, even after several hundred seconds’ driving. The temperature of the intake air appeared to have a limited but signiﬁcant effect on emissions after the engine has been running for some time. All vehicles tested here comfortably met the relevant EU limits, providing further evidence that these limits are no longer challenging and need updating.
The paper presents a solution for sensorless field oriented control (FOC) system for five-phase induction motors with improved rotor flux pattern. In order to obtain the advantages of a third harmonic injection with a quasi-trapezoidal flux shape, two vector models, α1–β1 and α3–β3, were transformed into d1–q1, d3–q3 rotating frames, which correlate to the 1st and 3rd harmonic plane respectively. A linearization approach of the dual machine model in d–q coordinate frames is proposed by introducing a new additional variable “x” which is proportional to the electromagnetic torque. By applying the static feedback control law, a dual mathematical model of the five-phase induction motor was linearized to synthesize a control system in which the electromagnetic torque and the rotor flux can be independently controlled. The results shows the air gap flux shape in steady as well transient states under various load conditions. Moreover, the implemented control structure acquires fault tolerant properties and leads to possible emergency running with limited operation capabilities. The fault-tolerant capability of the analyzed machine was guaranteed by a special implemented control system with a dedicated speed observer, which is insensitive to open-phase fault situation. The experimental tests have been performed with single and double-open stator phase fault. A torque measurement was implemented to present the mechanical characteristics under healthy and faulty conditions of the drive system.
This paper proposes a methodology based on installation cost for locating the optimal position of interline power flow controller (IPFC) in a power system network. Here both conventional and non conventional optimization tools such as LR and ABC are applied. This methodology is formulated mathematically based on installation cost of the FACTS device and active power generation cost. The capability of IPFC to control the real and reactive power simultaneously in multiple transmission lines is exploited here. Apart from locating the optimal position of IPFC, this algorithm is used to find the optimal dispatch of the generating units and the optimal value of IPFC parameters. IPFC is modeled using Power Injection (PI) model and incorporated into the problem formulation. This proposed method is compared with that of conventional LR method by validating on standard test systems like 5-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems. A detailed discussion on power flow and voltage profile improvement is carried out which reveals that incorporating IPFC into power system network in its optimal location significantly enhance the load margin as well as the reliability of the system.
With the continuous increase of output power ratings, multi-phase (multichannel) interleaved power factor corrector (IPFC) is gradually employed in domestic and commercial inverter air-conditioners. IPFC can solve several main problems, such as power rating increase, power device selection, input current ripple reduction as well as inductor on-board mounting. But for a multi-phase IPFC, the key problem is that it should show rapid dynamic responds and good current sharing capability, so in this paper the aim is to improve the dynamic performance and current sharing capability by means of passivity control theory. Considering the power circuit topology of a four-phase IPFC, an EL (Euler-Lagrange) mathematical model is established when the IPFC operates in continuous conduction mode (CCM). Then the passivity of the four-phase IPFC is proved, and the passivity-based controller using the state variables feedback and damping injection method is designed. The proposed control scheme, which is easy to control and needs no proportion integral controller, has strong robustness on disturbance from singlephase AC input voltage, the load as well as the parameters of the employed devices. Even in wide-range load condition, the mains current has a fast dynamic response and the average output voltage almost keep unchanged. As a result, the main functions of the four-phase IPFC are implemented including nearly unitary power factor and constant DC output voltage. Meanwhile, the four-phase IPFC acquires an excellent current sparing effect after using passivity-based controller. The above analysis has been proved with simulated results by means of MATLAB/SIMULINK and experimental results, showing that the passivity-based IPFC controller has superior performances and feasibility.
The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of nodular graphite cast iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment/ transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results of using this method for possibility production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. In this case was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-450- 10 Grade according PN-EN 1563:2000. Microstructure of 28 trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical metallic matrix and graphite characteristic. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in one experiment. Because of further possibility treatment temperature reduction only the rough magnesium recovery and cost of this new method are given.
The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of ferritic nodular cast iron (ductile iron) with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment / transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results and analysis of using this method for optimal production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. It means, that length of nodulariser wire plus treatment and pouring temperatures were optimized. In this case, was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-SiMo40-6 Grade according EN 16124:2010 E. Microstructure of great number of trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical ferritic metallic matrix and nodular graphite. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in some experiments. Mean values of magnesium recovery and cost of this new method from optimized process parameters were calculated as well.