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Abstract

For a long time creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship have been at the heart of studies on economic growth of regions and cities. In the paper the three notions are scrutinised together to propose conceptual approach to establishing research and development pathways, based upon three-stage identification of: research problems, project patterns and relational mechanisms. The paper is concluded with a 63 Box – the approach helping to navigate throughout project preparation phase.
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Abstract

One of the main problem of innovative projects in Russian Federation is the need to assess the impact of exogenous shocks on their financing and development. The impact of this type of shock in the period of globalization is sharply increasing. In order to assess the impact of exogenous shocks on innovative projects we create a model with two stages using the innovate project of production of water purification plants. The first stage of it is the construction of a simple model of financial risk, stipulating the conditions when investors will invest in this firm in the absence of negative shocks, their expectations will depend on their own confidence in continuing investment at the next stages. This model shows a positive result. At the second stage we take into account the impact of the negative exogenous shocks on the project, and try to trace a reaction of companies involved in financing innovative projects. The results of the project were negative. The investor in this case as a rule can stop financing and has the risk of losses. In order to prevent this situation we propose to use a real option for a possible refusal to implement an innovative project in the event that the net present value after one year of financing will be negative or very small. To our opinion it is one of the best ways to reduce financial risks during the implementation of innovative projects for investors.
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Abstract

The paper deals with possibilities of innovation projects financing in the Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in the Czech Republic. It discusses, in the emphasis on SMEs, possible approaches to innovative company financing in dependence on company life cycle. Well established and functional models of innovative companies financing as FFF, Business angels, Private equity and Venture capital funding and mezzanine financing are discussed. Inasmuch SMEs are considered the key driving force of the Czech economy and the stabilizing feature of the regional development, the government places emphasis on the development of financial instruments which would ensure an ongoing financial support of innovation projects. But managements of SMEs insufficiently use all opportunities to obtain investment resources for the growth, future competitiveness and prosperity of their companies. According to researches performed in EU it was proven that financing constraints hinder innovation among SMEs. Maintaining regional balance through sustainable performance of SMEs is the common aim of municipalities as well. It is necessary for SMEs to form long-term relationships with their municipalities in the region. Programmes which arrange financial support for institutions are provided through private investors, grants, the EU funds and national budget. The paper evaluates pros and cons of various types of financial subsidies with respect to payback periods, risk exposure and availability. The paper includes the outputs of empirical research in SMEs carried out 2014 focused on steering innovation projects in SMEs. The aim of the research was to find out if SMEs can manage, evaluate and develop innovation projects. Moreover the authors examined the effectiveness of relationships established between SMEs and municipalities and problems which the SMEs are confronted by upon the ensurance of project innovation investments. The sources procurement is a very sophisticated topic and it is beneficial for the SMEs to establish a close cooperation not only with municipalities but also with universities.
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