The paper presents the problem of intelligent installations in buildings, their construction and integration with other systems present in the building. Attention has been focused on systems designed to ensure the safety of property and persons residing in different facilities. It also discusses ways to control the microclimate and other aspects of the building so as to obtain the maximum comfort of the people placed in them. Considering its high popularity, the smart installation based on the KNX/EIB standard is further discussed, examples of algorithms for dealing with security threats are given as well as the functions indicated which can improve the comfort of using a facility.
The interdisciplinary report is an effect of the work of a team of experts appointed by Division I for Humanities and Social Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN). The team consisted of representatives of academic committees of the division. Its task was to formulate answers to 20 questions most frequently asked in public discourse regarding costs and benefits of the European integration, relations between Poland and the EU authorities, threats to the integration, the future of the EU and the place of Poland in the Community. The authors express concern about the potential results of the negative attitude of the current Polish government towards the actions of the institutions of the EU, the growing criticism towards the European integration and the threat of marginalisation of Poland within the EU or even the possibility of Poland’s leaving the EU (Polexit). They also indicate the possible economic, political and civilizational outcomes of the actions of the Polish authorities which weaken Poland’s ties to the EU. The report urges the academic community to increase their research activity and involvement in the public debate regarding these vital issues.
The author presents the search for the identity of individuals and families displaced after World War II from Vilnius to Gdańsk in the context of the urban community integration. Gdańsk being a city where the population after the war was almost fully replaced, becomes in this sense a kind of laboratory of social integration processes. The text serves as an introduction to the topic and is based on the results of the pilot qualitative research conducted within the The Common Room Gdańsk” (2013–2015) project coordinated by prof. M. Mendel. The analyses are a contribution to the reflection on identity determinants of integration processes within the urban community, also in relation to contemporary times. When discussing the issues of identity, the author points to the importance of the turning point which was the end of World War II, and the experience of expatriation in the spatial and socio-cultural context.
The aim of the article is to present international economic integration as one of the mega trends that infl uence on the redefi nition of the factors of socio-economic development. The research procedure includes three stages. In the fi rst stage, the most important modern mega trends of socio-economic changes are organized in a synthetic way. In the second step, the genesis and changes of the process of international economic integration are elaborated. In the third stage, the infl uence of international economic integration on the changes of factors of socio-economic development is systematized. This study is being carried out as part of the FORSED research project (http://www.forsed.amu.edu.pl) fi nanced by the National Science Center as part of OPUS competition 10 – 2015/19/B/HS5/00012: New challenges of regional policy in shaping the socio-economic development factors of less developed regions.
Today’s cities tend to “pour out” beyond their administrative boundaries. This phenomenon is related to the settlement of people “from the city” in neighboring municipalities, or taking up jobs in cities by people living in neighboring municipalities. This has been recognized in the European Union, which has introduced appropriate legal instruments for cohesion policy. Integrated Territorial Investments were introduced to the EU cohesion policy for the fi rst time in the 2014-2020 fi nancial perspective. Their goal was to intensify cooperation between cities and their functional areas. Unfortunately, the emerging information about diffi culties in implementing ITIs often become the basis for considering this idea ineff ective. The purpose of the work is qualitative and quantitative verifi cation of the operation of ITU based on selected data, so that it is possible to answer the question about the validity of the existence of this instrument.
The article reviews the integrated territorial investments carried out in the Opolskie Voivodeship in the financial perspective 2014-2020. The object of the analysis was the Opole Agglomeration as the only of five functional areas of the Opolskie Voivodeship, where beneficiaries of funds from European Funds are located within this investment policy development policy.
The article presents Model Integration of Immigrants in Gdańsk in the field of education, based on two years of experience of schools, local government institutions and social organizations involved in the creation of conditions for the education of immigrants. & e foreign pupils, defined as “someone else”, not belonging to the community of “our”, are not the subject of educational policy, but immediately a} er crossing the threshold of schools become its object. The law and school practices define their place in the system, that becomes a huge challenge for both teachers and for students themselves and their parents. Gdańsk way to develop urban educational policy for immigrants led from intervention by the diagnosis of problems and learning from others, to seek their own innovative solutions.
Baltic Europe, i.e. the sea and inland hinterland, form a unique macro-regional unit. Strong collaboration links as well as competition in the Baltic Sea Region are an inherent feature of the region from the beginnings of its civilization development. The article shows the forty-year-long Baltic integration process and the Polish scientific contribution to the process. Since 2004, the Baltic has become an internal EU sea. This fact no doubt strengthened cooperation of the countries around the Baltic Sea. In many spheres, these ties take the form of networking. An important stimulus for further integrations is the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. Political stabilisation and economic development may transform, in a longer time span, the emerging transnational Baltic Europe into a new economic and cultural European centre.
The article presents a framework for integrating historical sources with elements of the geographical space recorded in unique cartographic materials. The aim of the project was to elaborate a method of integrating spatial data sources that would facilitate studying and presenting the phenomena of economic history. The proposed methodology for multimedia integration of old materials made it possible to demonstrate the successive stages of the transformation which was characteristic of the 19th-century space. The point of reference for this process of integrating information was topographic maps from the first half of the 19th century, while the research area comprised the castle complex in Kórnik together with the small town – the pre-industrial landscape in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland). On the basis of map and plan transformation, graphic processing of the scans of old drawings, texture mapping of the facades of historic buildings, and a 360° panorama, the source material collected was integrated. The final product was a few-minute-long video, composed of nine sequences. It captures the changing form of the castle building together with its facades, the castle park, and its further topographic and urban surroundings, since the beginning of the 19th century till the present day. For a topographic map sheet dating back to the first half of the 19th century, in which the hachuring method had been used to present land relief, a terrain model was generated. The transition from parallel to bird’s-eye-view perspective served to demonstrate the distinctive character of the pre-industrial landscape.
The aim of the study is to compare the development of self-esteem and identity integration over time among people with disability and without it (data from norm groups), including people with a spinal cord injury as well as with disabilities caused by other reasons. The research examined self-esteem and identity integration of individuals with disability with regard to disability duration, gender, age, correlation analysis of self-esteem and identity integration. The sample consisted of 133 individuals with acquired disabilities. The study used the Polish adaptations of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Multidimensional Self-Assessment Inventory. Additionally, the respondents with disability completed a form with questions about their age, gender, disability duration and its cause. The outcomes of SES and MSEI modules were checked against the norm groups. The results demonstrated that self-esteem and identity integration do not vary with regard to gender, age or acquired disability conditions. The differences between subjects with disability and the normalized group have proven to be negligible. However, the factor that turned out to be highly significant was the disability duration. Differences have been observed among groups with disability lasting up to 4 months, from 4 months to 2 years, from 2 to 6 years and over 6 years. To sum up, self-esteem and identity integration correlation proved to be high and positive. These findings suggested that the higher the self-esteem, the more integrated the identity, regardless of either the disability type or its degree. The level of self-esteem is subject to differentiation primarily due to disability duration.
The paper presents local dynamic approach to integration of an ensemble of predictors. The classical fusing of many predictor results takes into account all units and takes the weighted average of the results of all units forming the ensemble. This paper proposes different approach. The prediction of time series for the next day is done here by only one member of an ensemble, which was the best in the learning stage for the input vector, closest to the input data actually applied. Thanks to such arrangement we avoid the situation in which the worst unit reduces the accuracy of the whole ensemble. This way we obtain an increased level of statistical forecasting accuracy, since each task is performed by the best suited predictor. Moreover, such arrangement of integration allows for using units of very different quality without decreasing the quality of final prediction. The numerical experiments performed for forecasting the next input, the average PM10 pollution and forecasting the 24-element vector of hourly load of the power system have confirmed the superiority of the presented approach. All quality measures of forecast have been significantly improved.
The article discusses selected issues concerning both the activities and the contents of Strategy Cracow 2030 – An Ambitious Plan of the City Where Life Can Be Enjoyed. The author analyses how selected concepts well known in the local and regional development policy literature and practice such as territorial capital, second-tier city, integrated territorial planning and metropolisation are refl ected in the key development planning document of the second-largest Polish city. The strategy was adopted by the City Council in February 2018. The article focuses in particular on the applied work method, based on an advanced partnership and cooperation of key stakeholders, assumptions adopted in the strategy and axiology, identified challenges and development resources, and metropolitan city aspirations. The author also discusses selected issues regarding implementation system of the strategy.
The article presents the question of solidarity in relation to the energy policy of the European Union. This topic seems particularly important in the context of the crisis of the European integration process, which includes, in particular, economic problems, the migration crisis and the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (Brexit). The issue of solidarity was analyzed from the legal and formal, institutional, and functional and relational points of view. The aim of the article is to show to what extent the theoretical assumptions, resulting from the provisions of European law on the solidarity, correspond with the actions of the Member States in the energy sector. The practice of the integration process indicates that the particular national economic interests in the energy sector are more important for the Member States than working towards European solidarity. Meanwhile, without a sense of responsibility for the pan-European interest, it is not possible to effectively implement the EU’s energy policy. The European Commission – as the guardian of the treaties – confronts the Member States with ambitious challenges to be undertaken “in the spirit of solidarity”. In the verbal sphere, this is supported by by capitals of the individual countries, but in practice, the actions taken divide the Member States into opposing camps instead of building a sense of the European energy community. This applies in particular to such issues as: the management of the energy union, investments in the gas sector (e.g. Nord Stream I and Nord Stream II), and the position towards third countries – suppliers of energy raw materials to the EU (in particular towards the Russian Federation). Different views on the above problems make it extremely difficult for Member States to take action “in the spirit of energy solidarity”. Thus, the energy problem becomes another reason for the weakening of European unity.
The dynamic development of wind power in recent years has generated the demand for production forecasting tools in wind farms. The data obtained from mathematical models is useful both for wind farm owners and distribution and transmission system operators. The predictions of production allow the wind farm operator to control the operation of the turbine in real time or plan future repairs and maintenance work in the long run. In turn, the results of the forecasting model allow the transmission system operator to plan the operation of the power system and to decide whether to reduce the load of conventional power plants or to start the reserve units. The presented article is a review of the currently applied methods of wind power generation forecasting. Due to the nature of the input data, physical and statistical methods are distinguished. The physical approach is based on the use of data related to atmospheric conditions, terrain, and wind farm characteristics. It is usually based on numerical weather prediction models (NWP). In turn, the statistical approach uses historical data sets to determine the dependence of output variables on input parameters. However, the most favorable, from the point of view of the quality of the results, are models that use hybrid approaches. Determining the best model turns out to be a complicated task, because its usefulness depends on many factors. The applied model may be highly accurate under given conditions, but it may be completely unsuitable for another wind farm.
This study presents cause-effect dependencies between inputs and outputs of business transitions that are software objects designed for processing information-decision state variables in integrated enterprise process control (EntPC) systems. Business transitions are elementary components of controlling units in enterprise processes that have been defined as self-controlling, generalized business processes, which may serve not only as business processes but also as business systems or their roles. Business events, which have zero durations by definition, are interpreted as executions of business actions that are main operations of business transitions. Any ordered set of business actions, performed in the controlling unit of a given enterprise process and attributed to the same discrete-time instant, is referred to as ‘the information-decision process’. The i-d processes may be substituted by managerial business processes, performed on the lower organizational level, where durations of activity executions are greater than zero, but discrete-time periods are considerably shorter. In such a case, procedures of business actions are performed by corresponding activities of managerial processes, but on the level of business transitions the durations of their executions are imperceptible, and many different business events may occur at the same discrete-time instant. It has been demonstrated in the paper how to control business actions to ensure that a given i-d state variable may not change more than once at a given instant. Furthermore, the rules of designing the i-d process structures, which prevent random changes of transitory states, have been presented.
The article aims to present the scope of influence of Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI) on the sustainable development of urban functional areas (FUAs) in Poland. Against the background of the general principles of the implementation of the both instruments, practical aspects of the implementation of ITI in FUAs have been presented. Detailed analyses in the financial and spatial aspect were carried out using the Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI). These provided the basis for presenting the practical aspect of supporting the sustainable development of urban functional areas in the EU Cohesion Policy 2014–2020.
The article considers the main trends of development of the Russian system of teacher education in the 21st century, translated documents on the basis of which there were changes in the education system.
There are different meanings and functions of what is called a “general principle of law.” This article seeks to address their importance as the basis for the systemic integration of the international legal order. When international law is considered as a legal system, its normative unity and completeness seems essential. This article argues that general principles of law are a necessary, although less visible, element of international legal practice and reasoning, which secure the systemic integration and long-lasting underpinnings of international law. In this sense they may be seen as the gentle guardians of international law as a legal system.
In the complex RLC network, apart from the currents flows arising from the normal laws of Kirchhoff, other distributions of current, resulting from certain optimization criteria, may also be received. This paper is the development of research on distribution that meets the condition of the minimum energy losses within the network called energy-optimal distribution. Optimal distribution is not reachable itself, but in order to trigger it off, it is necessary to introduce the control system in current-dependent voltage sources vector, entered into a mesh set of a complex RLC network. For energy-optimal controlling, to obtain the control operator, the inversion of R(s) operator is required. It is the matrix operator and the dispersive operator (it depends on frequency). Inversion of such operators is inconvenient because it is algorithmically complicated. To avoid this the operator R(s) is replaced by the R’ operator which is a matrix, but non-dispersive one (it does not depend on s). This type of control is called the suboptimal control. Therefore, it is important to make appropriate selection of the R’ operator and hence the suboptimal control. This article shows how to implement such control through the use of matrix operators of multiple differentiation or integration. The key aspect is the distribution of a single rational function H(s) in a series of ‘s’ or ‘s⁻¹’. The paper presents a new way of developing a given, stable rational transmittance with real coefficients in power series of ‘s/s⁻¹՚. The formulas to determine values of series coefficients (with ‘s/s⁻¹’) have been shown and the conditions for convergence of differential/integral operators given as series of ‘s/s⁻¹’ have been defined.