The most challenging in speech enhancement technique is tracking non-stationary noises for long speech segments and low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). Different speech enhancement techniques have been proposed but, those techniques were inaccurate in tracking highly non-stationary noises. As a result, Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hurst-based (EMDH) approach is proposed to enhance the signals corrupted by non-stationary acoustic noises. Hurst exponent statistics was adopted for identifying and selecting the set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that are most affected by the noise components. Moreover, the speech signal was reconstructed by considering the least corrupted IMF. Though it increases SNR, the time and resource consumption were high. Also, it requires a significant improvement under nonstationary noise scenario. Hence, in this article, EMDH approach is enhanced by using Sliding Window (SW) technique. In this SWEMDH approach, the computation of EMD is performed based on the small and sliding window along with the time axis. The sliding window depends on the signal frequency band. The possible discontinuities in IMF between windows are prevented by the total number of modes and the number of sifting iterations that should be set a priori. For each module, the number of sifting iterations is determined by decomposition of many signal windows by standard algorithm and calculating the average number of sifting steps for each module. Based on this approach, the time complexity is reduced significantly with suitable quality of decomposition. Finally, the experimental results show the considerable improvements in speech enhancement under non-stationary noise environments.
Gas-liquid flows abound in a great variety of industrial processes. Correct recognition of the regimes of a gasliquid flow is one of the most formidable challenges in multiphase flow measurement. Here we put forward a novel approach to the classification of gas-liquid flow patterns. In this method a flow-pattern map is constructed based on the average energy of intrinsic mode function and the volumetric void fraction of gas-liquid mixture. The intrinsic mode function is extracted from the pressure fluctuation across a bluff body using the empirical mode decomposition technique. Experiments adopting air and water as the working fluids are conducted in the bubble, plug, slug, and annular flow patterns at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Verification tests indicate that the identification rate of the flow-pattern map developed exceeds 90%. This approach is appropriate for the gas-liquid flow pattern identification in practical applications.