Steel and cast-iron products, due to their low price and beneficial properties, are the most widely used among metals; their consumption has become an indicator of the economic development of countries. The characteristics of iron raw materials, in relation to current metallurgical requirements, are presented in the present this article. The globalization of the trade and development of steelmaking technologies have caused significant changes in the quality of raw materials in the last half-century forcing improvements in processing technologies. In many countries, standard concentrates (at least 60% Fe) are almost twice as rich as those processed in the mid-20th century. Methods of quality assessment have been improved and quality standards tightened. The quality requirements for the most important raw materials ‒ iron ores and concentrates, steel scrap, major alloy metals, coking coal, and coke, as well as gas and other energy media ‒ are reviewed in the present paper. Particular attention is paid to the quality testing methodology. The quality of many raw materials is evaluated multi-parametrically: both chemical and physical characteristics are important. Lower-quality parameters in raw materials equate to significantly lower prices obtained by suppliers in the market. The markets for these raw materials are diversified and governed by separate sets of newly introduced rules. Price benchmarks (e.g. for standard Australian metallurgical coal) or indices (for iron concentrates) apply. Some raw materials are quoted within the framework of the commodity market system (certain alloying components and steel scrap). The abandonment of the long-established system of multi-annual contracts has led to wide fluctuations in prices, which have reached a scale similar to that of other metals.
The paper presents the issue of synthetic cast iron production in the electric induction furnace exclusively on the steel scrap base. Silicon carbide and synthetic graphite were used as carburizers. The carburizers were introduced with solid charge or added on the liquid metal surface. The chemical analysis of the produced cast iron, the carburization efficiency and microstructure features were presented in the paper. It was stated that ferrosilicon can be replaced by silicon carbide during the synthetic cast iron melting process. However, due to its chemical composition (30% C and 70% Si) which causes significant silicon content in iron increase, the carbon deficit can be partly compensated by the carburizer introduction. Moreover it was shown that the best carbon and silicon assimilation rate is obtained where the silicon carbide is being introduced together with solid charge. When it is thrown onto liquid alloy surface the efficiency of the process is almost two times less and the melting process lasts dozen minutes long. The microstructure of the cast iron produced with the silicon carbide shows more bulky graphite flakes than inside the microstructure of cast iron produced on the pig iron base.
This paper deals with influence on segregation of iron based phases on the secondary alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 microstructure by nickel. Iron is the most common and harmful impurity in aluminum casting alloys and has long been associated with an increase of casting defects. In generally, iron is associated with the formation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases. It is impossible to remove iron from melt by standard operations. Some elements eliminates iron by changing iron intermetallic phase morphology, decreasing its extent and by improving alloy properties. Realization of experiments and results of analysis show new view on solubility of iron based phases during melt preparation with higher iron content and influence of nickel as iron corrector of iron based phases.
This paper deals with influence on segregation of iron based phases on the secondary alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 microstructure by chrome. Iron is the most common and harmful impurity in aluminum casting alloys and has long been associated with an increase of casting defects. In generally, iron is associated with the formation of Fe-rich phases. It is impossible to remove iron from melt by standard operations, but it is possible to eliminate its negative influence by addition some other elements that affect the segregation of intermetallics in less harmful type. Realization of experiments and results of analysis show new view on solubility of iron based phases during melt preparation with higher iron content and influence of chrome as iron corrector of iron based phases. By experimental work were used three different amounts of AlCr20 master alloy a three different temperature of chill mold. Our experimental work confirmed that chrome can be used as an iron corrector in Al-Si alloy, due to the change of intermetallic phases and shortening their length.
The present paper describe the issue of tool materials wear in a high temperature conditions. The investigations were performed at the cast steel tool material at the tribological contact to the structural steel. The investigations aim was to determine the role of microstructure in a tribological properties between the structural steel and tool material. The results of such investigation could be referenced to the industry conditions and could answer about the problems of tool materials wear. The observations of the wear mechanisms were referred to the microstructure of the mill rolls. The laboratory tests ware aimed at evaluating the thermal treatment modification effect on the cast steels properties. A significant role of the morphology of ledeburitic cementite and secondary cementite on the tribological properties was exhibited. The investigations assumed the presence of an austenitic matrix with primary and secondary cementite. Influence of varying morphology carbides was described. in the cast steel microstructure. The investigation results make possible to point to a direction of carbide morphology change with the purpose of obtaining the assumed properties of hot operation tools.
This paper presents the results of the abrasive wear resistance of selected types of nodular cast iron, including ADI, cooperating with quartz sand and 100 grit abrasive paper. It has been shown that carbides in nodular cast iron cause an increase in wear resistance of 6 to 12% depending on the surface fraction of the carbides and type of the matrix. For the same unit pressure the mass loss of the cast iron cooperating with quartz sand is many times larger than the cast iron cooperating with abrasive paper. For both abrasives the highest wear resistance showed nodular cast iron with upper and lower bainite and carbides.
The paper deals with susceptibility of nodular cast iron with ferritic -pearlitic matrix on cavitation erosion . Cavitation tests were carried out with the use of a cavitation erosion vibratory apparatus employing a vibration exciter operated at frequency of 20 kHz. The study allowed to determine the sequence of subsequent stages in which microstr ucture of cast iron in superficial regions is subject to degradation. The first features to be damaged are graphite precipitates. The ferritic matrix of the alloy turned out to be definitely less resistant to cavitation erosion compared to the pearlitic matrix component.
This paper considers the assessment of attenuation in aluminium alloys castings and in cast iron prepared by gravity casting method and by casting under pressure. The issue of ultrasound attenuation is important in setting the conditions of non-destructive (NDT) testing, especially in casted materials. The characteristics of the ultrasonic technique and ultrasonic attenuation and the calculation of the attenuation and the velocity of ultrasound are presented in the theoretical part of this paper. For experimental measurements, cylindrical castings from AlSi alloy (a hypoeutectic alloy with a silicon content of about 7% - AlSi7 and a eutectic alloy with a silicon content of about 12% - AlSi12) and from grey and ductile cast iron were made. The ultrasonic records of the casting control, the calculation of ultrasound attenuation for individual samples are listed and described in the experimental part. The evaluation of measurements and comparison of calculated ultrasound attenuation is at the end of this article.
The paper presents data concerning the total production of castings over the 2000-2014 period, both on a global scale, and in Poland. The basic types of casting alloys were taken into account. Changes in the production volume and structure over the period of the analysed 15 years were pointed out with respect to countries leading in foundry production. The topmost position in the world foundry industry is held by China for several years (with almost 45% share in the foundry market), the second place is taken by India (with almost 9% share). A distinct reduction in the shares of the once significant producers of castings, such as USA, Japan, Germany, Russia, Italy, or France, was observed over the 2000-2014 period. Poland had a share of 1.16% in 2000, and of 1.02% in 2014. Comparing the detailed data concerning the years 2000 and 2014, one can see that the fractions of castings made of ductile iron, cast steel, aluminium alloys, or magnesium alloys increase on a global scale, while such alloys as grey cast iron or malleable are in decline.
This paper deals with influence of chrome addition and heat treatment on segregation of iron based phases in the secondary alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 microstructure by chrome and heat treatment. Iron is the most common and harmful impurity in aluminum casting alloys and has long been associated with an increase of casting defects. In generally, iron is associated with the formation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases. It is impossible to remove iron from melt by standard operations, but it is possible to eliminate its negative influence by addition some other elements that affect the segregation of intermetallics in less harmful type or by heat treatment. Realization of experiments and results of analysis show new view on solubility of iron based phases during melt preparation with higher iron content and influence of chrome as iron corrector of iron based phases.
The results of research on stereological parameters of carbides in modified hypoeutectic chromium cast iron were shown in the paper. The effect of distance the casting heat centre of casting to the carbide phase morphology was examined. The samples for metallographic examination were taken from various locations of the model casting prepared in a special tester. This model casting was designed to simulate the solidification of heavy castings. Using the proposed methodology the relation of the distance from the model mould and the size, perimeter, length, width and the shape factor of carbides was examined. During the analysis, the values of stereological parameters of carbides changed on various sections of the model casting.
An intentional change in material properties is an important condition for castings production. It is one way how to meet the casting requirements of how to adapt the material properties to the operating conditions. Centrifugally cast rolls are multi-layer rollers, castings. The working layer of the barrel is called the "shell" and the body of the roll and the necks rolls are called "core". The article deals with the influence of the properties of the core iron. Earlier laboratory experiments were primary analysed for metallographic analysis and mechanical properties. These data were compared back to the experiments. The results of these laboratory working were later applied in the operating conditions of the roll foundry Vítkovitcké slévárny, spol. s r.o. The spun cast roll produced with the applied metallurgical processing change was supplied to the hot strip mill. There were monitored the positive effect of the change of the metallurgical process of the production of the core iron on the useful properties of the centrifugally cast roll. The experiment was done in order to increase the mechanical properties of ductile pearlite ductile iron. The copper in these core iron material increases the hardness and strength primarily.
High-chromium cast irons are used as abrasion resistant materials. Their wear resistance depends on quantity of carbides and the matrix supporting these carbides. The paper presents the results of cast irons of chemical composition (in wt. %) 19–22 Cr and 2–4.5 C alloyed by 1.7 Mo + 5 Ni + 2 Mn to improve their toughness, which were tested in working conditions of ferroalloys crushing. Tests showed that these as-cast chromium cast irons with mostly austenitic matrix achieved the hardness of 38-45 HRC, but their relative abrasion resistance Ψ ranged from 1.3 to 4.6, was higher comparing to the tool made from the X210Cr12 steel heat treated on hardness 61 HRC. The transformation of austenite into martensite occurs not only at the worn strained areas (on a surface of scratch) but also in their neighbourhood. Due to the work hardening of relatively large volumes of transformed austenite the cast iron possesses high abrasion resistance also on the surfaces where low pressures are acting. The tough abrasion-resistant cast iron well proved for production of dynamic and wear stressed castings e.g., crusher hammers, cutting tools for ceramic etc.