Rock excavation is a basic technological operation during tunnelling and drilling roadways in underground mines. Tunnels and roadways in underground mines are driven into a rock mass, which in the particular case of sedimentary rocks, often have a layered structure and complicated tectonics. For this reason, rock strata often have highly differentiated mechanical properties, diverse deposition patterns and varied thicknesses in the cross sections of such headings. In the field of roadheader technology applied to drilling headings, the structure of a rock mass is highly relevant when selecting the appropriate cutting method for the heading face. Decidedly differentiated values of the parameters which describe the mechanical properties of a particular rock layer deposited in the cross section of the drilled tunnel heading will influence the value and character of the load on the cutting system, generated by the cutting process, power demand, efficiency and energy consumption of the cutting process. The article presents a mathematical modelling process for cutting a layered structure rock mass with the transverse head of a boom-type roadheader. The assumption was made that the rock mass being cut consists of a certain number of rock layers with predefined mechanical properties, a specific thickness and deposition pattern. The mathematical model created was executed through a computer programme. It was used for analysing the impact deposition patterns of rock layers with varied mechanical properties, have on the amount of cutting power consumed and load placed on a roadheader cutting system. The article presents an example of the results attained from computer simulations. They indicate that variations in the properties of the rock cut – as cutting heads are moving along the surface of the heading face – may have, apart from multiple other factors, a significant impact on the value of the power consumed by the cutting process.
A layered sensor structure of metal-free phthalocyanine H2Pc (~160 nm) with a very thin film of palladium (Pd ~20 nm) on the top, has been studied for hydrogen gas-sensing application at relatively low temperatures of about 30°C and about 40°C. The layered structure was obtained by vacuum deposition (first the phthalocyanine Pc and than the Pd film) onto a LiNbO3Y- cut Z-propagating substrate, making use of the Surface Acoustic Wave method, and additionally (in this same technological processes) onto a glass substrate with a planar microelectrode array for simultaneous monitoring of the planar resistance of the layered structure. In such a layered structure we can detect hydrogen in a medium concentration range (from 0.5 to 3% in air) even at about 30°C. At elevated temperature up to about 40°C the differential frequency increases proportionally (almost linearly) to the hydrogen concentration and the response reaches its steady state very quickly. The response times are about 18 s at the lowest 0.5% hydrogen concentration to about 42 s at 4% (defined as reaching 100% of the steady state). In the case of the investigated layered structure a very good correlation has been observed between the two utilized methods - the frequency changes in the SAW method correlate quite well with the decreases of the layered structure resistance.