The article presents how multi-layered urban lighting projects fit into the programs of integrated activities to improve the living conditions of the local community, the surrounding space, and its economic relations. The role of the electric lighting in revealing the night image of the city, its promotion and public spaces transformations offering new impressions to city residents is growing thanks to the use of the SSL technology. The authors focus on a role of outdoor lighting projects in urban regeneration within the selected urban areas. The paper describes how conscious shaping of lighting by analysing the goals and stages of the project can contribute to the improvement of quality in the processes of renewal of degraded urban areas.
The existence of extensive records for the impact of night sky brightness on the animals’ behavior in their natural environment shows the need to investigate the level of artificially induced night sky glow (light pollution) in the protected areas. The results of multi-night sky brightness measurements carried out at the selected sites in Polish mountain areas under various atmospheric conditions are presented. Conducted measurements show a strong impact of the artificial sky glow on the night sky brightness, which is the essence of light pollution. The influence of both distant urban centers, as well as local tourist resorts on the size of studied phenomenon in the mountain areas, which causes both ecological and touristic degradation of these areas was stated. In a few studied areas the level of night sky brightness greatly exceeds the natural one and is comparable to such levels measured inside the cities. It was found that only the southern part of the Polish Carpathians can be considered an area free of light pollution.
This work concerns measurements of the radiant intensity emitted by LEDs. The influence of selected factors and parameters on the final measurement result are discussed. The research was conducted using two type of detectors: light meter and CCD camera, to compare the degree of influence of these parameters depending on the measurement instrument used.
A thermal resistance characterization of semiconductor quantum-well heterolasers in the AlGaInAs-AlGaAs system (λst ≈ 0.8 μm), GaSb-based laser diodes (λst ≈ 2 μm), and power GaN light-emitting diodes (visible spectral region) was performed. The characterization consists in investigations of transient electrical processes in the diode sources under heating by direct current. The time dependence of the heating temperature of the active region of a source ΔT(t), calculated from direct bias change, is analyzed using a thermal RTCT equivalent circuit (the Foster and Cauer models), where RT is the thermal resistance and CT is the heat capacity of the source elements and external heat sink. By the developed method, thermal resistances of internal elements of the heterolasers and light-emitting diodes are determined. The dominant contribution of a die attach layer to the internal thermal resistance of both heterolaser sources and light-emitting diodes is observed. Based on the performed thermal characterization, the dependence of the optical power efficiency on current for the laser diodes is determined.
The paper presents selected results of studies connected with modeling of a biological object which could be used for simulation and measurements of the selected human tissues optical transmittance. The studies were performed for transilluminated homogeneous tissue layers as well as for objects consisted of different tissues. During simulations the software built with LabVIEW environment was used. Experimental verification of the model structure was made with spectrophotometry. The presented examples of modeling concern the transmittance spectra for two selected specific objects: the venous blood and muscle tissue analyzed in the wavelength range extending from 360 nm to 900 nm. The implemented model could be used in estimating the content and thickness of particular layers distinguished in a complex object and prediction of their transillumination efficiency.
In the paper, on the basis of the performed tests, low-cycle fatigue characteristics (LCF) of selected light metal alloys used among others in the automotive and aviation industries were developed. The material for the research consisted of hot-worked rods made of magnesium alloy EN-MAMgAl3Zn1, two-phase titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and aluminium alloy AlCu4MgSi(A). Alloys used in components of means of transport should have satisfactory fatigue, including low-cycle fatigue, characteristics. Low-cycle fatigue tests were performed on an MTS-810 machine at room temperature. Low-cycle fatigue tests were performed for three total strain ranges Δεt = 0.8%, 1.0% and 1.2% with a cycle asymmetry coefficient R = –1. On the basis of the obtained results, characteristics of the fatigue life of materials, cyclic deformation σa = f(N) and cyclic deformation of the tested alloys were developed. The tests showed that titanium alloy Ti6Al4V was characterised by the highest fatigue life Nf, whereas the lowest fatigue life was found in the tests of the aluminium alloy AlCu4MgSi(A).
The results of surface texture measurements obtained with the stylus equipment, white light interferometer and confocal profilometer of the same samples were compared. Machined isotropic and anisotropic surfaces, of symmetric and asymmetric ordinate distribution were measured. Forms were removed using polynomials. Sampling intervals and measuring areas during computations of parameters were the same. Discrepancies between the results obtained with various methods were observed and discussed. It was found that errors of surface texture measurement with the optical methods depend on the type of surface topography.
Light exposure is an important environmental factor which breaks seed dormancy in many plant species. Phytochromes have been identified as playing a crucial role in perception of the light signal that releases seed germination in Arabidopsis. Phototropins (Phot1, Phot2) are blue/UV-photoreceptors in plants which mediate phototropic responses, chloroplast relocation, hypocotyl growth inhibition and stomata opening. We studied germination under different light conditions in Arabidopsis Phot1-null and Phot2-null mutants and in a double phot1phot2 mutant. Germination of single phot1 and phot2 mutants in darkness was much lower than in wildtype (WT) seeds, whereas double phot1phot2 mutant lacking both functional phototropins germinated at frequency comparable to WT seeds, irrespective of light and temperature conditions. Light treatment of imbibed seeds was essential for effective germination of phot1, irrespective of low-temperature conditioning. In contrast, cold stratification promoted dark germination of phot2 seeds after imbibition in dim light. Low germination frequency of phot1 seeds under low light intensity suggests that the presence of functional Phot1 might be crucial for effective germination at these conditions. The lower germination frequency of phot2 seeds under continuous light suggests that Phot2 might be responsible for stimulating germination of seeds exposed to direct daylight. Thus, the phototropin system may cooperate with phytochromes regulating the germination competence of seeds under different environmental conditions
BC (Black Carbon), which can be found in the atmosphere, is characterized by a large value of the imaginary part of the complex refractive index and, therefore, might have an impact on the global warming effect. To study the interaction of BC with light often computer simulations are used. One of the methods, which are capable of performing light scattering simulations by any shape, is DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation). In this work its accuracy was estimated in respect to BC structures using the latest stable version of the ADDA (vr. 1.2) algorithm. As the reference algorithm the GMM (Generalized Multiparticle Mie-Solution) code was used. The study shows that the number of volume elements (dipoles) is the main parameter that defines the quality of results. However, they can be improved by a proper polarizability expression. The most accurate, and least time consuming, simulations were observed for IGT_SO. When an aggregate consists of particles composed of ca. 750 volume elements (dipoles), the averaged relative extinction error should not exceed ca. 4.5%.
The paper presents a new method of surface topology reconstruction from a white light interferogram. The method is based on interferogram modelling by complex exponents (Prony method). The compatibility of white light interferogram and Prony models has already been proven. Effectiveness of the method was tested by modelling and examining reconstruction of tilted and spherical surfaces, and by estimating the reconstruction accuracy.
We introduce numerical methods and algorithms to estimate the main parameters of fractal-like particle aggregates from their optical structure factor (i.e. light scattering diagrams). The first algorithm is based on a direct and simple method, but its applicability is limited to aggregates with large size parameter and intermediate fractal dimension. The second algorithm requires to build calibration curves based on accurate particle agglomeration and particle light scattering models. It allows analyzing the optical structure factor of much smaller aggregates, regardless of their fractal dimension and the size of the single particles. Therefore, this algorithm as well as the introduction of a criterial curve to detect the different scattering regimes, are thought to be powerful tools to perform reliable and reproducible analysis.
This paper is focused on the manufacturing and properties of light weight aggregates made from local waste materials. The waste materials were car windshield glass contaminated by PVB foil, fly ash, mine slates as well as wastes after toothpaste production. The main aim of the research was to combine car windshield glass and the aluminosilicate coal mine slates as a basis for light weight aggregates manufacturing. Fly ash were added in order to modify rheological properties of the plastic mass. Toothpaste wastes were introduced as a source of carbonates and CO2 evolution during thermal treatment. After milling and mixing all materials they were pressed and sintered at temperature range of 950°C-1100°C in air. The results show that it is possible to receive light weight aggregates only from the Silesian local waste materials. The significant influence of sintering temperature on properties of aggregates was observed.
Designed by the architect Louis I. Kahn, the Phillips Exeter Academy Library is renowned mostly for the quality of its inner spaces. Particularly, the image of the building's central void with its large circular openings giving an insight onto the bookshelves has almost become an archetype of the library. Following the building's design process, however, we will learn how many tangible factors participated in the actual shaping of its architecture. The uniqueness of this project relies not only on embodying the idea of the library as institution, but also on the compromises the architect took as well as on the building's adjustment to its environmental setting.
This work is focused on the issue of non-measured points – one of the most important problems in surface texture measurements using optical methods. The fundamental aim of this research is to analyse errors of surface texture measurements caused by the presence of non-measured points. This study is divided into two parts. In the first part, circles with non-measured points were artificially created on peak portions of measured surfaces. In the second part – the results of measurement by a Talysurf CCI Lite interferometer were analysed. A measurement area of 3.3 × 3.3 mm contained 1024 × 1024 points. The measurements were performed with different intensity of light. Changes of parameters regarding the analysed errors depended on a surface type. The following parameters are susceptible to errors: skewness Ssk, areal material ratio Smr, as well as the following feature parameters: Spd, Sda, Sdv, Sha and Shv. Inaccuracies of measurement in valley parts of two-process textures led usually to larger errors of parameter computations compared with deviations in peak portions.
Spatial light modulators (SLM) are devices used to modulate amplitude, phase or polarization of a light wave in space and time. Current SLMs are based either on MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) or LCD (liquid crystal display) technology. Here we report on the parameters, trends in development and applications of phase SLMs based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) technology. LCoS technology was developed for front and rear projection systems competing with AMLCD (active matrix LCD) and DMD (Digital Mirror Device) SLM. The reflective arrangement due to silicon backplane allows to put a high number of pixels in a small panel, keeping the fill-factor ratio high even for micron-sized pixels. For coherent photonics applications the most important type of LCoS SLM is a phase modulator. In the paper at first we describe the typical parameters of this device and the methods for its calibration. Later we present a review of applications of phase LCoS SLMs in imaging, metrology and beam manipulation, developed by the authors as well as known from the literature. These include active and adaptive interferometers, a smart holographic camera and holographic display, microscopy modified in illuminating and imaging paths and active sensors.
Visible Light Communication (VLC) is a technique for high-speed, low-cost wireless data transmission based on LED luminaries. Wireless LAN environments are a major application of VLC. In these environments, VLC is used in place of traditional systems such as Wi-Fi. Because of the physical characteristics of visible light, VLC is considered to be superior to traditional radio-based communication in terms of security. However, as in all wireless systems, the security of VLC with respect to eavesdropping, signal jamming and modification must be analyzed. This paper focuses on the aspect of jamming in VLC networks. In environments where multiple VLC transmitters are used, there is the possibility that one or more transmitters will be hostile (or “rogue”). This leads to communication disruption, and in some cases, the hijacking of the legitimate data stream. In this paper we present the theoretical system model that is used in simulations to evaluate various rogue transmission scenarios in a typical indoor environment. The typical approach used so far in jamming analysis assumes that all disruptive transmissions may be modeled as Gaussian noise, but this assumption may be too simplistic. We analyze and compare two models of VLC jamming: the simplified Gaussian and the exact model, where the full characteristics of the interfering signal are taken into account. Our aim is to determine which methodology is adequate for studying signal jamming in VLC systems.