Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are the most widespread root fungal symbionts, forming associations with the vast majority of plant species. Ectomycorrhizal development alters gene expression in plant symbionts. In this work we examined the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores on the growth and development of Brassica and on the expression of BnMT2 in winter rape. In a pot experiment, rape seedlings growing on different types of sterile and nonsterile soils were inoculated simultaneously with mycorrhizal fungi spores of Acaulospora longula,Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae and Scutellospora calospora. As compared with control plants growing in the absence of spores, ten-week-old seedlings of Brassica napus L. in sterile soil inoculated with arbuscular spores had longer shoots and higher fresh biomass of above-ground plant parts. In other types of substrates enriched with mycorrhizal fungi spores, the plants were smaller than non-inoculated plants. The presence of AMF spores stimulated the elongation growth of hypocotyls in both analyzed substrates. BnMT2 expression was highest in plants growing on the sterile substrate. Generally, the presence of mycorrhizal fungi spores appeared to have an adverse effect on the growth of rape plants.