The first step towards condition based maintenance of the milling plant is the implementation of online condition monitoring of the mill. The following paper presents and analyses methods of monitoring the key performance factors of a vertical spindle mill that is suited for implementation on older power stations, i.e. the quantity (mass flow rate) and quality (particle fineness) of the pulverised fuel produced by the mill. It is shown herein that the mill throughput can be monitored on-line using a simple mill energy balance that successfully predicts the coal throughput within 2.33% as compared to a calibrated coal feeder. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the coal moisture is a critical measurement for this method to be adopted as an on-line mass flow monitoring tool. A laser based particle size analyser tool was tested for use in the power plant environment as an online monitoring solution to measure pulverised fuel fineness. It was revealed that several factors around the set-up and operation of the instrument have an influence on the perceived results. Although the instrument showed good precision and repeatability of results, these factors must be taken into account in order to improve the accuracy of the reported results before the instrument can be commissioned as an on-line monitoring solution.
The paper presents the results of studies on quartzite milling in a ball mill. The milling was conducted in a batch system, for diversified compositions of balls. The milling product was subjected to granulometrical, morphological and strength analyses. On the basis of the developed Reid's theory and using the Austin-Gardner equation, a form of the function circumscribing the specific rate of comminution of selected size fractions was determined. The values of the breakage rate function bi, j for the mill's apparatus conditions were determined. The impact was investigated for a variable number of grinding media contact points on the values of specific rate S and the values of the breakage rate function bi, j. Furthermore, the values of coefficients occurring in the equations circumscribing the specific rate of milling S and breakage parameter bi, j were determined.
The article concerns investigations over benefits of application of HRC devices into sulphide copper ore processing plant. High pressure comminution appears to be very effective technology in hard ore processing circuits, especially in terms of energy consumption. This can be particularly observed in downstream grinding and beneficiation operations. A series of pilot-scale crushing tests in HRC roller press for various levels of operating pressure, were performed. HRC crushing effectiveness along with downstream grinding process course for each crushing product were also under analysis. The investigations were supplemented by analysis of flotation process effectiveness and impact of the process of high-pressure comminution on environment (dust emission). The results of investigation show that operating pressure level influences the obtained comminution results (comminution degree, yield of finest particle size fractions). The grinding effectiveness, measured through production of the finest particle size fractions was significantly influenced by the operating pressure. The results show that higher values of operating pressure (4.0 and 4.5 N/mm2) are not as efficient within this scope as the pressure 3.5 N/mm2. Dust emission is also correlated with the operating pressure value.
The effects of different volumetric ratios of bulking agents to pulp/paper-mill sludge on composting were studied. Rice husk and corncob were used as bulking agents. Volumetric ratios of bulking agents to pulp/paper-mill sludge were used as 10:100 and 25:100. To monitor the evolution of the composting systems, routine parameters such as temperature, moisture, pH, total N, NH4 +-N, NO3 --N, total C, and C/N ratio were analyzed. The results indicated that the agro-based materials significantly affected compost maturity parameters. Moreover, the quality of the product obtained in the composting process treated with the agro-based materials achieved satisfactory stabilization and sanitation for application to land.
Flowability of fine, highly cohesive calcium carbonate powder was improved using high energy mixing (dry coating) method consisting in coating of CaCO3 particles with a small amount of Aerosil nanoparticles in a planetary ball mill. As measures of flowability the angle of repose and compressibility index were used. As process variables the mixing speed, mixing time, and the amount of Aerosil and amount of isopropanol were chosen. To obtain optimal values of the process variables, a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was applied. To match the RSM requirements it was necessary to perform a total of 31 experimental tests needed to complete mathematical model equations. The equations that are second-order response functions representing the angle of repose and compressibility index were expressed as functions of all the process variables. Predicted values of the responses were found to be in a good agreement with experimental values. The models were presented as 3-D response surface plots from which the optimal values of the process variables could be correctly assigned. The proposed, mechanochemical method of powder treatment coupled with response surface methodology is a new, effective approach to flowability of cohesive powder improvement and powder processing optimisation.
The study proposed the model of “guide mark” defects formation on the internal surface of pipes, produced on PRM mills of PRP – 140. The research of pipe forming at plug rolling mill with stub mandrel has been carried out; regularities of the dimensionless parameters characterizing the deformation of the gap release, depending on the reduction ratio, were determined. The model of “guide mark” defect formation on the internal surface of the pipe has been proposed. This allows for lesser wall thickness variation of rough tubes. It has been shown that, when using dioctahedral pass designs in comparison with hexagonal pass designs the proportion of displaced volume along the pipe axis is greater but the value is lower; thereby, the risk of “guide mark” defect forming is reduced.
Sludge from cardboard mill is most commonly landfilled, but it could also be recycled on-site into production or reused in some other way. In this study the use of sludge from cardboard mill as stabilizing agent in the stabilization treatment of cadmium polluted sediment was examined. The effectiveness of treatment and long-term leaching behavior of cadmium was evaluated by determining the cumulative percentage of cadmium leached, diffusion coefficients (De) and by applying different leaching tests (semi-dynamic test, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, waste extraction test). In order to simulate the “worst case” leaching conditions, the semi-dynamic leaching test was modified using 0.014 M acetic acid (pH = 3.25) and humic acids solution (20 mg l-1 TOC) as leachants instead of deionized water. A diffusion-based model was used to elucidate the controlling leaching mechanisms. Applied treatment was effective in immobilizing cadmium irrespective of high availability in the untreated sample. The controlling leaching mechanism appeared to be diffusion, which indicates that a slow leaching of cadmium could be expected when the cardboard mill sludge as stabilization agent is applied.