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Number of results: 7
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Abstract

The utilization of mining waste is an important problem in Poland and Ukraine. The article presents one of the variants of waste mining in the quarry in Płaza. An analysis of the resource base of the deposit and their location at the area of Płaza deposit is carried out. The Płaza deposit is located in the western part of the Małopolskie province, in the entire Chrzanów commune. The Płaza deposit is constructed of Middle Triassic carbonates represented by the limestone-dolomite Olkusz Formation and the limestone-marlized Gogolin Formation. The deposit series lies on the dolomites of Röt age (Lower Triassic – Olenekian). The most valuable raw material was the pure limestone from the lower part of the Olkusz Formation, now almost completely exploited. The article presents the current state of mineable reserves of the deposit and their quality (chemical and physical characteristics). Moreover the article shows potential consumers of raw material and the possibility of extending the life of the mine work. According to the results of the environmental monitoring the ground and hydrogeological conditions were evaluated, the results of which allowed a more efficient use of the existing quarry area for mining waste disposal to be proposed. The paper presents a conceptual waste transport scheme, planned distribution and compaction of wastes belonging to the first, second and third group and then a surface reclamation. In view of the absence of similar decisions analogs, the consideration of the open-pit as a one solid geomechanical system functioning under the conditions of uncertainty is suggested. In order to examine the dynamics of the waste compaction process, some measures are foreseen to constantly observe their subsidence. The proposed measures for the synchronous disposal of mining waste in the worked-out area of the open-pit and the simultaneous mining operation in the quarry will allow the life cycle of the open-pit to be prolonged for 15–20 years.
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Abstract

For years, the Polish hard coal mining has been struggling with the problem of fire hazards in areas with coal residue, mainly in goafs. Currently, a common method of limiting this hazard is the fire prevention involving use of fine-grained hydromixtures based on power generation waste, mainly fly ashes. The hydromixture is introduced into the caving zone created by the advancement of exploitation face and its task is to fill in voids, limiting the possibility of access to the mine air oxygen to a minimum. The first part of the article presents theoretical fundamentals of determining the parameters of gravitational hydraulic transport of water and ash hydromixtures used in the mining pipeline systems. Each hydromixture produced based on fine-grained wastes is characterized by specified rheological parameters that have a direct impact on the future flow parameters of a given pipeline system. Additionally, the gravitational character of the hydraulic transport generates certain limitations concerning the so-called correct hydraulic profile of the system in relation to the applied hydromixture characterized by required rheological parameters that should ensure safe flow at a correct efficiency. This paper shows an example of optimisation of the composition of a selected fly ash-water hydromixture in relation to its capacity for hydrotransport in gravity pipeline installations, as well as the amount of excess water that will always drain from the location of feeding the hydromixture to the underground workings.
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Abstract

The purpose of the research was mapping, inventorization, and valorization of coal mining waste dumps from the mines of JSW SA company, for the needs of recovery of coal from the dump material as well as the reclamation and management of examined facilities. The valorization of post-mining waste dumps has been carried out using a methodology which considers the problems of reclamation, management, accessibility of the dumps as well as environmental hazards connected with disposing of mining and preparation wastes on the ground surface. An inventorization of 10 coal mining waste dumps coming from 6 mines of JSW SA including in their range 7 deposits: Borynia, Jastrzębie, Zofiówka, Budryk, Knurów, Szczygłowice and Pniówek was carried out. The source material within the localization of particular dumps was obtained from archival materials coming from coal mines and municipalities where the dumps are located. Verified data has been drawn on topographical map, which results in the map of coal mining waste dumps. The results of the valorization of the dumps comprise the defining of: the name of the dump, state of the dump, surface of the dump, accessibility, name of the coal mine from where the wastes come from, type of technical and biological reclamation and possibilities of coal recovery, which have been brought on the drawn map. Basing on collected and elaborated data, an attempt of defining of potential possibilities of recovery of coal from the dumps and connection of coal quality in the deposits of JSW SA and in waste material was made. The results of the research showed that in spite of preliminary information that a majority of the investigated dumps may be considered as potential facilities for coal recovery, ultimately the recovery is economically justified only in several cases (5 facilities).
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Abstract

The new legislative provisions, regulating the trade in solid fuels in our country, draw attention to the need to develop and improve methods and methods of managing hard coal sludge. The aim of the work was to show whether filtration parameters (mainly the permeability coefficient) of hard coal sludge are sufficient for construction of insulating layers in landfills at the stage of their closing and what is the demand for material in the case of such a procedure. The analysis was carried out for landfills for municipal waste in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie provinces. For hard coal sludge, the permeability coefficient values are in the range of 10–8–10–11 m/s, with the average value of 3.16 × 10–9 m/s. It can be concluded that this material generally meets the criteria of tightness for horizontal and often vertical flows. When compaction, increasing load or mixing with fly ash from hard coal combustion and clays, the achieved permeability coefficient often lowers its values. Based on the analysis, it can be assumed that hard coal sludge can be used to build mineral insulating barriers. At the end of 2016, 50 municipal landfills were open in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie Provinces. Only 36 of them have obtained the status of a regional installation, close to 1/3 of the municipal landfill are within the Major Groundwater Basin (MGB) range. The remaining storage sites will be designated for closure. Assuming the necessity to close all currently active municipal waste landfills, the demand for hard coal sludge amounts to a total of 1,779,000 m3 which, given the assumptions, gives a mass of 2,704,080 Mg. The total amount of hard coal sludge production is very high in Poland. Only two basic mining groups annually produce a total of about 1,500,000 Mg of coal sludge. The construction of insulating layers in landfills of inert, hazardous and non-hazardous and inert wastes is an interesting solution. Such an application is prospective, but it will not solve the problem related to the production and management of this waste material as a whole. It is important to look for further solutions.
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Abstract

Significant quantities of coal sludge are created during the coal enrichment processes in the mechanical processing plants of hard coal mines (waste group 01). These are the smallest grain classes with a grain size below 1 mm, in which the classes below 0.035 mm constitute up to 60% of their composition and the heat of combustion is at the level of 10 MJ/kg. The high moisture of coal sludge is characteristic, which after dewatering on filter presses reaches the value of 16–28% (Wtot r) (archival paper PG SILESIA). The fine-grained nature and high moisture of the material cause great difficulties at the stage of transport, loading and unloading of the material. The paper presents the results of pelletizing (granulating) grinding of coal sludge by itself and the piling of coal sludge with additional material, which is to improve the sludge energy properties. The piling process itself is primarily intended to improve transport possibilities. Initial tests have been undertaken to show changes in parameters by preparing coal sludge mixtures (PG SILESIA) with lignite coal dusts (LEAG). The process of piling sludge and their mixtures on an AGH laboratory vibratory grinder construction was carried out. As a result of the tests, it can be concluded that all mixtures are susceptible to granulation. This process undoubtedly broadens the transport possibilities of the material. The grain composition of the obtained material after granulation is satisfactory. Up to 2 to 20 mm granules make up 90–95% of the product weight. The strength of the fresh pellets is satisfactory and comparable for all mixtures. Fresh lumps subjected to a test for discharges from a height of 700 mm can withstand from 7 to 14 discharges. The strength of the pellets after longer seasoning, from the height of 500 mm, shows different values for the analyzed samples. The values obtained for hard coal sludge and their blends with brown coal dust are at the level from 4 to 5 discharges. The strength obtained is sufficient to determine the possibility of their transport. At this stage of the work it can be stated that the addition of coal dust from lignite does not cause the deterioration of the material’s strength with respect to clean coal sludge. Therefore, there is no negative impact on the transportability of the granulated material. As a result of mixing with coal dusts, it is possible to increase their energy value (Klojzy-Karczmarczyk at al. 2018). The cost analysis of the analyzed project was not carried out.
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Abstract

The subject of the research is one of the largest World’s mine tailings disposal sites, i.e. Żelazny Most in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Mining District (south-western Poland), where flotation tailings are poured out after copper ore treatment. The protective hydraulic barrier made of 46 vertical drainage wells was characterized and evaluated in view of reduction of major contaminants (Cl, Na, SO4, Ca) migrating from the facility to its foreground. The efficiency of groundwater protection was determined on the basis of a new approach. In applied method the loads of characteristic and commonly recognizable compounds, i.e. salt (NaCl) and gypsum (CaSO4) were calculated, instead their chemical components. The temporal and spatial variability of captured main contaminants loads as well as its causes are discussed. The paper ends with the results of efficiency analyses of the barrier and with respect to the predicted increase in contaminant concentrations in the pulp poured out to the tailings site.
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