In 2015 an important part of the official evaluation of Polish scientific journals was left to experts’ judgement. In this paper we try to establish which observable factors (with available data) are closely related to the outcome of experts’ evaluation of Polish journals in economic sciences. Using the multiple regression statistical model we show that only 5 variables (out of 17) significantly explain almost 50% of the empirical variance of the experts’ evaluation. The determinants of particular interest, not entering the formal criteria and not related to the impact on global science, are: the number of citations mainly in Polish journals and the affiliation with the Polish Academy of Sciences.
The paper focuses on the modelling of bromate formation. An axial dispersion model was proposed to integrate the non-ideal mixing, mass-transfer and a kinetic model that links ozone decomposition reactions fromthe Tomiyasu, Fukutomi and Gordon (TFG) ozone decaymodelwith direct and indirect bromide oxidation reactions, oxidation of natural organicmatter and its reactionswith aqueous bromine. To elucidate the role of ammonia an additional set of reactions leading to bromamine formation, oxidation and disproportionation was incorporated in the kinetic model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to obtain information on reliability of the reaction rate constants used and to simplify the model.
“Mineral deposit model”, “deposit modelling” are the terms commonly used, although imprecise. This is often identified as the application of computerized methods to the elaboration and presentation of geological information, in particular for the mining design. Deposit modelling is the mode of presentation of deposit features, which in the meaning of the authors of such presentation, describes the deposit features between the points of observations as best as possible. Deposit modelling has a long history (XVI-XVII centuries), however such a term was not used. Varied methods of cartographic presentation of deposits and their features were proposed. The progress in the presentation of the deposit in space using isolines maps has led to the separation of methods of deposits geometrisation. Over time, a simple mathematical statistics method was used to describe the deposit parameters, followed by geostatistical methods. Some of them were however not commonly used as too troublesome. The computer based approach to the presentation of geological data has an unquestionable value but is accompanied by the possibility of inappropriate formalized and erroneous interpretations and a presentation as to whether the basic rules of geological knowledge were neglected. Deposits modeling is a conceptual task and cannot be fully automated.
Exploitation of hard coal seams by roadway system is applied by two coal mines in southern Poland in Upper Silesian Basin. It is a secondary mining exploitation carries out in safety pillars of urban areas and shafts within mining areas of closed coal mines. Roadway system is the excavation process of gateways which are made in parallel order leaving coal pillars between them. An optimal width of coal pillar makes roadway stable and reduces subsidence of terrain surface. The article presents results of subsidence simulation caused by partial extraction using empirical and numerical methods on the example of one exploitation field of “Siltech” coal mine. The asymptotic state of subsidence was considered after mining ceased in the study area. In order to simulate of subsidence, numerical model of rock mass and model of Knothe-Budryk theory were calibrated. Simulation of vertical displacements in numerical method was carried out using RS3 program by Rocscience based on finite element method. The assumption was made that model of rock mass is transversely isotropic medium, in which panels were designed according to order of extraction of coal seams. The results of empirical and numerical methods were compared with measured values of subsidence at benchmarks along drawn lines (subsidence profiles).
The complexity and uncontrolled formation of struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) and its deposition in the technological equipment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still the subject of research aimed at understanding the causes and proposing a remedial action. In order to reduce the intensity of the precipitation of struvite in wastewater treatment plants, it is recommended, among others, to limit ﬂow velocity to below 1.5 m·s-1. Literature analysis showed that there are no studies on the precipitation of struvite deposits in pipelines. Most studies focus on the deliberate precipitation of struvite, for example phosphorus recovery, resulting in a molar ratio of 1:1:1 (NH4+:PO43-:Mg2+). In fact, in WWTPs, such concentrations do not occur, but there have been cases of the precipitation of this mineral (and its mixtures) in the sludge parts. In this paper, the study aimed at determining conditions for the precipitation of deposits with a signiﬁcant participation of struvite on the inner walls of steel pipes. The study was conducted at a non-stoichiometric concentration of ingredients at different pH values, as well as under dynamic conditions with ﬂow velocity below 1.5 m·s-1. A mathematical formula (ANOVA) that can be used to determine the mass of deposits in relation to the concentration of ammonium, phosphate, pH and ﬂow velocity was developed. Computational models were developed on to investigate struvite precipitation under different pH levels (8.0–9.5) and ionic concentrations. The studies were carried out on solutions containing ammonium (NH4+), phosphate (PO43-), and magnesium (Mg2+), at a ﬂow velocities of 0.4, 0.9 and 1.4 m·s-1. In order to determine the mathematical formula thanks to which the mass of precipitates can be determined, a special pilot study installation was constructed. The XPS surface analysis of sludge from sewage treatment plants showed a similar composition of compounds with sediments obtained in own research. The presence of struvite was suggested, but the share of atomic percentage of bonds to which struvite was classiﬁed is small and amounts to less than 4%. This means that sediments precipitated in the technological installations are a mixture of various compounds of which pure struvite may constitute only a small part.
Four Geodynamical Expeditions of the Polish Academy of Sciences carried through wide research seismic program in West Antarctica in 1979-1991. Three of these expeditions operated in the Bransfield Strait. The experiment of deep refraction and wide-angle reflection in West Antarctica focused on deep structure of the lithosphere, mainly of the Earth's crust. The network of deep seismic soundings (DSS) profiles covered all the Bransfield Strait. Five land stations on the South Shetland Islands, three stations on the Antarctic Peninsula and nine ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) recorded seismic waves, generated by explosions in a sea. The Bransfield Rift and the Bransfield Platform form a marginal basin against a volcanic arc of the South Shetland Islands. The paper presents new results of 2-D seismic modeling for network of five selected profiles. Four of them, ranging in lenght from 150 to 190 km, crossed main structures of the Bransfield Strait and the fifth, which connected the other ones and was 310 km long, ran along the Bransfield Rift. Two or three seismic models were presented for each profile. Finally, mutually corrected and controlled 2-D models of described profiles were constructed. They all presented spatial complex structure of the Earth's crust in a young rift of the Bransfield Strait, including extent of its main element i.e. anomalous high velocity body (HVB) (Vp > 7.4 km/s), detected in 10-30 km depth range except profile DSS-4 (southwest part of the Bransfield Strait). This inhomogeneity is interpreted as intrusion of the upper mantle (?asthenosphere) during stretching of the continental crust. The Moho discontinuity was found at depth 30-35 km, with velocities equal to about 8.1 km/s.
The contemporary underground mining of raw minerals is more and more associated with geological and mining software packages which support the work of designers from the moment of the exploration of a deposit, determination of its size and quality, geological, hydrogeological and tectonic conditions, by planning the development and cutting of the deposit. Production planning is one of the most important activities carried out in the course of a mining project, because it allows to set specific production results of a mine in relation to a time unit, and then allows for a verification of the degree of completion of the assumed plan. At present, computer-aided design is applicable to daily or long-term output planning taking deposit, qualitative, quantitative and cost constraints into account. In the article, selected forms of ore deposits were presented. On the basis of several dozen boreholes up to 300m in length, an exemplary fragment of the ore cutting model using computer-aided design of mining works was presented. By using modern computer software - ABB MineScape with modular construction, the possibilities of improving the process of development of future exploitation areas have been determined. In particular, the arrangement of boreholes, based on which ones the cross sections were made with, present the exemplary lithostratigraphic thickness of layers, including the location of discontinuous deformations in the form of faults, and an ore bearing zone. For the block model, resources with priority for metal N o. 1 and 2 were calculated. I n the last section of the article, the cutting idea for a shallow ore deposit has been presented. The degree of effective use of the deposit has been analysed for the room and pillar mining method.
The analysis of changes in the mechanical properties of wooden mining cribs under the influence of different types of exploitation loads is the question for which deals with many domestic and abroad research centers deal with. High The high interest in this subject results from the increase of the conducted depth exploitation, which contributes to the increase in both the vertical pres-sure and the complexity of geological – mining conditions and in- the intensification of natural hazards. Another reason is the tendency of decreasing the thickness of the exploited ores deposits. Wooden crib support is used Both both in underground ore, hard coal and salt mining is used wooden crib support. Mining cribs with various configurations are especially useful for the reinforcement of excavations workings behind the front and for further strengthen of the crossings. In particular, additional reinforcement support in the form of wooden cribs (pile supporting), which shall be left empty or filled with waste rock is applied in the ore mining in places where found extended rooms or drifts are found or in places with degraded roof conditions, applies additional reinforcement support in the form of wooden cribs (pile supporting), which shall be left empty or filled with waste rock. During underground ex-ploitation is produced waste Waste rock, which comes from the access, prepar-atory excavations and from ongoing field of exploitation is produced during underground exploitation. In the case of the underground exploitation of cop-per ore, waste rock is used to fill voids after exploitation as rock stowing. It is also used for filling mining wooden cribs, as an artificial support and for harder transportation roads. This paper presents the results of the laboratory strength tests performed on models of four-point timber cribs, built with beams set horizontally, at the ge-ometrical scale of 1:10. In the laboratory research Research wooden cribs models with size 200 × 200 × 200 mm and 100 × 100 × 100 mm were used in the laboratory. The paper describes the maximum loading capacity of the cribs consisted consisting only of beams and filled with waste rocks. In addition, a vertical and appropriate strain of cribs at maximum force was shown. On the basis of laboratory research it was found that the use of the same number of timbers and the management of waste rocks, the filling of the four-point cribs with the waste rocks allowed several times to increase its support to be increased several times.
Validation results of a theoretical model that describes the formation of bromate during ozonation of bromide-containing natural waters are presented. An axial dispersion model integrating the nonideal mixing, mass-transfer and a kinetic model that links ozone decomposition reactions from the Tomiyasu, Fukutomi and Gordon ozone decay model with direct and indirect bromide oxidation reactions, oxidation of natural organicmatter and reactions of dissolved organics and aqueous bromine was verified. Themodel was successfully validated with results obtained both at a laboratory and a full scale. Its applicability to different water supply systems was approved.
The paper presents modeling and simulation results of the operation of a three-phase fluidized bed bioreactorwith partial recirculation of biomass. The proposed quantitative description of the bioreactor takes into account biomass growth on inert carriers, microorganisms decay and interphase biomass transfer. Stationary characteristics of the bioreactor and local stability of steady-stateswere determined. The influence of microbiological growth kinetics on the multiplicity of steady-states was discussed. The relationship between biofilm growth and boundaries of fluidized bed existence was shown.
The author analyses onymic practices of Poznań–based craftsmen forming guilds. In the names of the inhabitants of Poznań, which stabilised until the end of the 18th century, she seeks traces of the so-called cognomens, i.e. secondary personal designations granted to apprentices who were becoming masters. The names resulted from community acts of creation, which were of ludic nature. Referring to German onymic practices and pointing to the so-called Schleifnamen, the author discusses specific codes of European middle-class culture. She focuses on the transfer of models and patterns to Polish urban communities.
Philip Sabin points out that modern wargames not only contain substantial amounts of historical information but also arrange it into interactive models which depict historical processes in a simplified manner. Such models can be used in historical research as well, complementing the discourse through more holistic and mathematically strict accounts, and providing tools that impose some discipline on counter- factual speculation.
Given a linear discrete system with initial state x0 and output function yi , we investigate a low dimensional linear systemthat produces, with a tolerance index ǫ, the same output function when the initial state belongs to a specified set, called ǫ-admissible set, that we characterize by a finite number of inequalities. We also give an algorithm which allows us to determine an ǫ-admissible set.
The complexity of the phenomena associated with the course of the cognitive processes that determine an efficient learning, excludes the possibility of collecting knowledge in other ways than neuronal-information. It excludes also possibilities of interpreting it, in other ways than with use of respectively formalized cognitive models. The presented paper is a kind of summary of the latest achievements in this field.
The article presents a synthetic analysis of the crude oil market in Poland. As of today, this safety is provided mainly on the basis of native lignite and hard coal resources. However, the analysis of the hard coal market conducted by the authors indicates that the carried out mining restructuring (among others) led to an excessive reduction of mining volume and employment level in the hard coal mining sector. This led to a precedent situation when Poland became an importer of this energy carrier. In addition, the European Union’s requirements for greenhouse gas emissions must be taken into account. In connection with the above, it is necessary to search for new energy sources or technologies that enable hard coal to meet the requirements. It is possible to apply the so-called clean coal technologies that allow the greenhouse gas emissions generated during coal combustion to be reduced. As of today, they are not used on a mass scale, because the use of this type of technology involves additional financial expenses. However, taking into account that technologies have been growing faster and faster, are modernized in a shorter time, making a breakthrough discovery took hundreds of years, now it is often a few months, clean coal technologies can become the optimal solution in the near future. It is also necessary to diversify the sources of obtaining imported energy carriers. The article describes coal and crude oil in terms of their mutual substitution. The article is a continuation of research conducted by the authors. Previous publications presented considerations on analogous topics related to natural gas and renewable energy sources. The crude oil market in Poland was analyzed and forecasts for oil extraction and the demand in the world and Poland by 2023 were presented. The SARIMA model was also created. The model made it possible to obtain oil an prices forecast.
Magnetic properties of silicon iron electrical steel are determined by using standardized measurement setups and distinct excitation parameters. Characteristic values for magnetic loss and magnetization are used to select the most appropriate material for its application. This approach is not sufficient, because of the complex material behavior inside electrical machines, which can result in possible discrepancies between estimated and actual machine behavior. The materials’ anisotropy can be one of the problems why simulation and measurement are not in good accordance.With the help of a rotational single sheet tester, the magnetic material can be tested under application relevant field distribution. Thereby, additional effects of hysteresis and anisotropy can be characterized for detailed modelling and simulation.
BIM (Building Information Modelling) is a tool and technology closely related to the planning, design, implementation and management of construction investments – both at the level of a building, as well as infrastructure or civil engineering. It combines advanced spatial modeling (using virtual representations of building elements) with management of information at every level, from the modelling of building’s components, through complex interactions between these elements, to the description of building processes and the behavior of users of the building. This is just a part of many possibilities, the full application depends only on the needs and skills of the system user. Construction dependencies are set at the level of the IFC (Industry Foundation Class) universal standard IFC, its syntax allows to describe not only the physical structure of the object, but also their mutual interactions. This is done in a hierarchical way, i.e. from the superior element there are subsequent, lower-level elements and interactions. So how can this tool be used in urban revitalization? The basic problem here is the excess of information related to and contained in the virtual model. In urban planning and design, most of this data is unnecessary. On the other hand, the data contained in the GIS (Geographic Information System) models, despite correlation with external databases, are insufficient. Basic location data, technical conditions of facilities and infrastructure, property dependencies are not enough to obtain a full picture of the urban space. The solution to the problem of linking these systems is CIM (City Information Modeling). It combines the description of an object derived from IFC with database support at the level of GIS systems. Such a broad approach allows for placing enough information in one virtual space for designing, modeling and analyzing urban space. The article is an attempt to demonstrate what conditions must be met by the CIM system, to extend its functionality to issues related to the revitalization of urban areas: whether and how the information contained in the spatial model can be used to determine the rules for the revitalization of space at the urban level?
The article discusses changes in Polish regulations concerning assessment of the climate hazard in underground mines. Currently, the main empirical index representing the heat strain, used in qualification of the workplace to one of the climate hazard levels in Poland is the equivalent climate temperature. This simple heat index allows easy and quick assessment of the climate hazard. To a major extent, simple heat indices have simplifications and are developed for a specific working environments. Currently, the best methods used in evaluation of microclimate conditions in the workplace are those based on the theory of human thermal balance, where the physiological parameters characterising heat strain are body water loss and internal core temperature of the human body. The article describes the results of research on usage of equivalent climate temperature to heat strain evaluation in underground mining excavations. For this purpose, the numerical model of heat exchange between man and his environment was used, taken from PN-EN ISO 7933:2005. The research discussed in this paper has been carried out considering working conditions and clothing insulation in use in underground mines. The analyses performed in the study allowed formulation of conclusions concerning application of the equivalent climate temperature as a criterion of assessment of climate hazards in underground mines.
Detailed studies of the movement of liquid steel (hydrodynamics) on a real object are practically impossible. The solution to this problem are physical modelling carried out on water models and numerical modelling using appropriate programs. The method of numerical modelling thanks to the considerable computing power of modern computers gives the possibility of solving very complex problems. The paper presents the results of model tests of liquid flow through tundish. The examined object was model of the twonozzle tundish model. The ANSYS Fluent program was used to describe the behavior of liquid in the working area of the tundish model. Numerical simulations were carried out using two numerical methods of turbulence description: RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) – model k-ε and LES (Large Eddy Simulation). The results obtained from CFD calculations were compared with the results obtained using the water model.
A modified approach to equilibrium modelling of coal gasification is presented, based on global thermodynamic analysis of both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions occurring during a gasification process conducted in a circulating fluid bed reactor. The model is based on large-scale experiments (ca. 200 kg/h) with air used as a gasification agent and introduces empirical modifications governing the quasi-equilibrium state of two reactions: water-gas shift and Boudouard reaction. The model predicts the formation of the eight key gaseous species: CO, CO2, H2O, H2, H2S, N2, COS and CH4, volatile hydrocarbons represented by propane and benzene, tar represented by naphthalene, and char containing the five elements C, H, O, N, S and inorganic matter.
The behaviour of porous sinters, during compression and compression with reverse cyclic torsion tests is investigated in the article based on the combination of experimental and numerical techniques. The sinters manufactured from the Distaloy AB powder are examined. First, series of simple uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples with three different porosity volume fractions: 15, 20 and 25%. Obtained data were then used during identification procedure of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman finite element based model, which can capture influence of porosity evolution on plasticity. Finally, the identified Gurson-Tvergaard- Needleman model was validated under complex compression with reverse cyclic torsion conditions and proved its good predictive capabilities. Details on both experimental and numerical investigations are presented within the paper.
The aim of the study was to determine the contamination transport condition with sediment in the Widawa River, which inflows to the Odra River below Wrocław city. The transport simulations have been performed by means of HEC-RAS model, which was calibrated. Study and geochemical analyses indicate that pollutions are cumulated mainly in sediment of grain size, less than 0,20 mm. It was stated that the main sources of contaminations occurring in the Widawa River bottoms are: superficial run-off, municipal and industrial wastes. Sediment bed quality from the Widawa River in selected cross-sections has been analyzed. Samples of suspended load were collected and divided into eight fractions, for which the phosphorus concentration P was calculated. Deposit particles less than 0,20 mm contained most phosphorus, i.e. 73% (3,52 ppm), and particles greater than 0,20 mm about 27% (1,30 ppm) for the whole sample volume. Relationship between the phosphorus concentration P and the sediment grain size was determined. Analysis showed that the initiation of contamination-sediment suspension in the Widawa River is well described by Engelund criterion. Simulations of the migration of pollutions together with deposits in the Widawa River showed that during average flow discharge, the transport intensity of pollution was equal 2 mg/s, and sediments 6 kg/s. In the present work the water quality of the Widawa River has been also presented.
This contribution deals with the modelling of a selected part of a new automotive communication standard called FlexRay. In particular, it focuses on the mechanism ensuring the start-up of a FlexRay network. The model has been created with the use of timed automata and verified. For this purpose the UPPAAL software tool has been used that allows the modelling of discrete event systems with the use of timed automata, and subsequently the verification of the model with the use of suitable queries compiled in the so called computation tree logic. This model can be used to look for incorrect settings of time parameters of communication nodes in the network that prevent network start-up and subsequently the start of the car. The existence of this model also opens the way for finding possible errors in the standard. On the basis of the model, the work gives a case study of the start-up mechanism behaviour verification in a FlexRay network consisting of three communication nodes.
Purging the liquid steel with inert gases is a commonly used treatment in secondary metallurgy. The main purposes for which this method is used are: homogenization of liquid steel in the entire volume of the ladle, improvement of mixing conditions, acceleration of the absorption process of alloy additives and refining of liquid steel from non-metallic inclusions. The basic processing parameters of this treatment are: gas flow rate and the level of gas dispersion in liquid steel. The level of gas dispersion depends on the design and location of the porous plug in the ladle. Therefore, these parameters have a significant impact on the phenomena occurring in the contact zone of liquid steel with slag. Their improper selection may cause secondary contamination of the bath with exogenous inclusions from the slag, or air atmosphere due to discontinuity of the slag and exposure of the excessive surface of the liquid steel free surface. The article presents the results of modelling research of the effect of liquid steel purging with inert gases on phenomena occurring in this zone. The research was carried out using the physical (water) model of steel ladle. As a modelling liquid representing slag, paraffin oil was used, taking into account the conditions of similarity with particular reference to the kinematic viscosity. The results of the conducted research were presented in the form of visualization of phenomena occurring on the surface of the model liquid free surface in the form of photographs. The work is a part of a bigger study concerning modelling of ladle processes.