The loss of power and voltage can affect distribution networks that have a significant number of distributed power resources and electric vehicles. The present study focuses on a hybrid method to model multi-objective coordination optimisation problems for dis- tributed power generation and charging and discharging of electric vehicles in a distribution system. An improved simulated annealing based particle swarm optimisation (SAPSO) algorithm is employed to solve the proposed multi-objective optimisation problem with two objective functions including the minimal power loss index and minimal voltage deviation index. The proposed method is simulated on IEEE 33-node distribution systems and IEEE-118 nodes large scale distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the technique. The simulation results indicate that the power loss and node voltage deviation are significantly reduced via the coordination optimisation of the power of distributed generations and charging and discharging power of electric vehicles.With the methodology supposed in this paper, thousands of EVs can be accessed to the distribution network in a slow charging mode.
Reactive distillation (RD) has already demonstrated its potential to significantly increase reactant conversion and the purity of the target product. Our work focuses on the application of RD to reaction systems that feature more than one main reaction. In such multiple-reaction systems, the application of RD would enhance not only the reactant conversion but also the selectivity of the target product. The potential of RD to improve the product selectivity of multiple-reaction systems has not yet been fully exploited because of a shortage of available comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies. In the present article, we want to theoretically identify the full potential of RD technology in multiple-reaction systems by performing a detailed optimisation study. An evolutionary algorithm was applied and the obtained results were compared with those of a conventional stirred tank reactor to quantify the potential of RD to improve the target product selectivity of multiple-reaction systems. The consecutive transesterification of dimethyl carbonate with ethanol to form ethyl methyl carbonate and diethyl carbonate was used as a case study.