Contemporary world brings along a continuing interpenetration of cultures strengthened by the migration revolution. The social space created by multiplicity of ethnic groups is very often a result of migration processes which totally formed such states as Canada or Australia. The sources of the European multiculturalism were, on the one hand, the officially accepted workforce, on the other hand – immigration being the effect of the colonial past of such states as France, Great Britain or Germany
The article presents the author’s considerations relating to the current and common problem of multiculturalism. Nowadays “multiculturalism” can be defined as co-existence – in the determined physical, social and political sphere as well as in a concrete historical period of time – of many ethnic groups representing different axiological and normative systems. The social created by multiplicity of ethnic groups is very often a result of migration processes which totally formed such states as Canada or Australia. The sources of the European multiculturalism were, on the one hand, the officially accepted workforce as Federal Republic of Germany, on the other one – immigration being the effect of the colonial past of such states as France, Holland or Britain. All these countries took up more or less advanced actions towards being able to deal with the deepening ethnic diversification. There appeared political project – multiculturalism.
The aim of the presented paper is to show the history of the development of research on social minorities in the environment of Bialystok sociologists. This research center, located on the north-eastern borderland of Poland, was one of the first in Poland to develop research in the field of borderland sociology. With time, the research subject has been expanded, from the analysis of the assimilation of the Belarusian minority to the contemporary face of the idea of a multicultural society, discussing not only nationality, religiosity, but also non-heteronormities.
In the article, the author presents the basic relations between a nation state and a multicultural society. According to the author, the attitude of the nation state and the dominant nation in the state to the phenomenon of cultural diversity of society is a key phenomenon in the theory and practice of multiculturalism. Namely, the nation state is characterized by two strategies defining the attitude to the cultural diversity of society. It is a strategy of cultural homogenization and a pluralistic. The emergence of a pluralistic strategy begins with the occurrence and eventual growth of phenomena and processes referred to as multiculturalism and multicultural society.
Some consider the multiculturality of Wrocław to be its obvious and socially legitimised “property”, whereas others view it as controversial and refutable construct. In the paper, we would like to investigate the multiculturality of the Lower Silesia’s capital taking into account its internal differentiation, which is mostly due to the adjudicating authorities – city authorities, its citizens and researchers — as well as observable dynamics. Hence, we propose to inspect the following: firstly, the real differentiation of the social structure of Wrocław’s inhabitants and its transformations related mostly to the influx of Ukrainians, who change the ethnic cityscape; secondly, the politics of municipal authorities regarding the promotion and strengthening of the city’s image as the multicultural, open and tolerant “meeting place”, as well as initiatives inscribed therein and other observable, contradictory events; thirdly, the evaluation of Wrocław’s multiculturality and its selected aspects performed by the city’s inhabitants and revealed in the research on this phenomenon in 2011 and in two editions of Social Diagnosis of Wrocław (2014 and 2017).