The paper presents methods of on-line and off-line estimation of UAV position on the basis of measurements from its integrated navigation system. The navigation system installed on board UAV contains an INS and a GNSS receiver. The UAV position, as well as its velocity and orientation are estimated with the use of smoothing algorithms. For off-line estimation, a fixed-interval smoothing algorithm has been applied. On-line estimation has been accomplished with the use of a fixed-lag smoothing algorithm. The paper includes chosen results of simulations demonstrating improvements of accuracy of UAV position estimation with the use of smoothing algorithms in comparison with the use of a Kalman filter.
The upcoming hypersonic technologies pose a difficult task for air navigation systems. The article presents a designed model of elastic interaction of penetrating acoustic radiation with flat isotropic suspension elements of an inertial navigation sensor in the operational conditions of hypersonic flight. It has been shown that the acoustic transparency effect in the form of a spatial-frequency resonance becomes possible with simultaneous manifestation of the wave coincidence condition in the acoustic field and equality of the natural oscillation frequency of a finite-size plate and a forced oscillation frequency of an infinite plate. The effect can lead to additional measurement errors of the navigation system. Using the model, the worst and best case suspension oscillation frequencies can be determined, which will help during the design of a navigation system.
This study investigated changes in the real-time measured levels of milk β-hydroxybutyrate according milk yield, lactation number and status of reproduction in dairy cows. A total of 378 cows were selected. According to their reproductive status the cows were classified as belonging to the following groups: Fresh (1 – 44 days after calving. n=43). Open (45 – 65 days after calving. n=78), Inseminated (1 – 35 days after insemination. n=133). Pregnant (35 – 60 days after insemination and pregnant (relatively pregnant) (n=124). The cows were milked with DeLaval milking robot (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden) in combination with a Herd Navigator (Lattec I/S. Hillerød. Denmark) analyser. We observed that milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) had a tendency of increasing with an increase of lactation number. The average BHB in multiparous cows was 11.111% higher in comparison with primiparous cows (p<0.001). We found higher BHB concentration in the multiparous cows in all reproduction status groups (p<0.001). A strong positive statistically significant (p<0.001) relationship has been found between BHB and the average milk yield within all groups of primiparous cows although we found a statistically unreliable coefficient of correlation (from -0.202 to 0.057) between highest milk yield and BHB in primiparous and multiparous cows.
The paper presents a method of developing a variable structure measurement system with intelligent components for flight vehicles. In order to find a distinguishing feature of a variable structure, a numerical criterion for selecting measuring sensors is proposed by quantifying the observability of different states of the system. Based on the Peter K. Anokhin’s theory of functional systems, a mechanism of “action acceptor” is built with intelligent components, e.g. self-organization algorithms. In this mechanism, firstly, prediction models of system states are constructed using self-organization algorithms; secondly, the predicted and measured values are compared; thirdly, an optimal structure of the measurement system is finally determined based on the results of comparison. According to the results of simulation with practical data and experiments obtained during field tests, the novel developed measurement system has the properties of high-accuracy, reliable operation and fault tolerance.
The paper presents a method of calculation of position deviations from a theoretical, nominally rectilinear trajectory for a SAR imaging system installed on board of UAV. The UAV on-board system consists of a radar sensor, an antenna system, a SAR processor and a navigation system. The main task of the navigation part is to determine the vector of differences between the theoretical and the measured trajectories of UAV center of gravity. The paper includes chosen results of experiments obtained during ground and flight tests.
Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks came into force on 14th April 2015 and has been ratified by now by over 40 states across the world (among them Australia, China, India, South Africa and most of the EU countries). The convention provides legal framework for action taken by the Coastal States aiming at removal of wrecks posing danger or impediment to navigation, as well as to the marine environment, or damage to the coastline or related interests of one or more States. The Convention fills the existing legal gap by enabling the States to remove wrecks beyond their territories (as well as within if States decide so). Beside the existing international regulations like Intervention Convention or UNCLOS, the Nairobi Convention clarifies the Costal State’s rights to remove wrecks from its EEZ if they pose a danger for safe navigation or marine environment. The Convention corresponds with mentioned conventions but also equips Coastal States with new legal instruments to deal with hazardous wrecks beyond their territory. The aim of the paper is to analyse the new rights and duties of states, as well as scope of the notion of navigational and environmental threats causes by wrecks. It will refer also to regulatory problems faced by the states implementing the Convention. Even if the Convention is to be applied to territorial sea, its multiple provisions are not. Moreover, the Convention leaves many important aspects unregulated. Those issues will be analysed from the perspective of a country which has not yet ratified the Convention, and will be confronted with the experience from other jurisdictions.
The study addresses the challenges facing the law of the sea. Although UNCLOS is rightly described as a constitution of the law of the sea, it does not and cannot give answers to all problems and doubts that arise in practice and that are related to global warming, protection of biodiversity, legal status of genetic resources, controversy concerning shipping, delimitation of areas or the protection of underwater cultural heritage. Hence the question arises, what the ways and means of further development of the law of the sea are. Undoubtedly, one of the possibilities is to develop implementation agreements, of which the third devoted to the protection and sustainable use of marine biodiversity outside national jurisdiction is the subject of an international conference convened by the General Assembly, whose resolutions in the area of the law of the sea play an important role. Undoubtedly, also the importance of the organization of the United Nations system, such as the IMO, FAO, UNESCO, UNEP is significant. There is also the possibility of accepting agreements addressing the issues left by UNCLOS without solution or definition. Not without significance is the soft law and the practice of states as well as the position of the organs appointed by UNCLOS.