An aim of this article was to analyze and interpret multifaceted semantic of motives for lying in the novel Women’s Lies by Lyudmila Ulitskaya mainly on the basis of the text’s content as well as related to it preceded annotations, essayistic and journalistic utterances of an actress. We declare that the “laboratory analyze” of women’s lies in its various scenes makes a leading opinion and basic motive of the novel. At the beginning of the conclusion we are concentrating on the author`s definition of lie, so we can later refer to mythological-historical-literary roots. In the context of above mentioned facts, it is interesting that Ulitskaya divides lie on masculine and feminine. Ulitskaya, in her typical way, referring to cultural-religious archetypes and symbols, indicates the roots of masculine lie pertaining even to the Old Testament, as contrary to “pleasant feminine lie”. In this regard, the mythological characters of Odysseus and Penelope are also recognized as representatives. After all, in the content of the analyzed piece are only presented various examples of female lies, and, in our opinion, exposed as an element of the third plane, which unites natural sciences and literature.
The study aims to contribute to research on the onomastic-stylistic diversity of Polish prose in the late 20th century. In focus are those onomastic properties of literature that reveal connections between names and language in the process of creating non-mimetic, literary-style fiction. These properties also point to the nature of proper names as they function in a literary work of art — that work being a post-modern intellectual-literary game. The names used in the novel (anthroponyms, toponyms, chrematonyms, also zoonyms) mainly derive from the author’s linguistic creativity: they contribute to the world-view projected through the text. That world-view is “purposefully and totally unusual”, different from the real world.
The evolution of David Harvey’s scientific interests. David Harvey’s work is a significant example of evolution and differences in contemporary human geography. It is characterised especially by three features related to one another: a constant change in scientific and research interests, a tendency to bridge the divisions between geographical specialities and scientific disciplines and the inclination towards deep theoretical and methodological reflection. A temporal and problem analysis allows distinguishing two phases of his research interests. In the first, neopositivist one, Harvey discusses methodological aspects of geography, being part of the process of changes in the research pattern of the maternal discipline; in the second, as a confirmed Marxist and radical geographer, he critically analyses contemporary urbanisation and the ideas of postmodernism and neoliberalism. Along with the evolution of scientific and research interests, Harvey’s approach to the examined issues changes – from an inquisitive researcher, concerned with the state of a native scientific discipline, he becomes a critical observer and a reformer of the surrounding reality.
This article, focused principally on the exploration of contingency, the body and disgust in Michał Witkowski’s novel Margot, is also a polemic and a vindication of the book against the barrage of criticism it received from its reviewers. Most of them decided that Margot was a novel about nothing, a haphazard mix of sundry discourses devoid of any linear structure. In fact, several critics blamed the author of giving away both the narrative structure and the plot to capricious contingency. The article takes a fi rm stance against such charges and argues that contingency does not need to be seen as a fault at all. It lies at the heart of the novel and determines the actions of characters, but it plays as important a role in people’s lives outside fi ction. Analysing the ups and down of the main characters (Margot and Wadek Mandarynka), the article explains the function of emotions, the body, the characters’ language and their ideas of sacrum in the legitimization of contingency. A special role in this mechanism is played by disgust. Reactions of disgust are always contingent, or, as Julia Kristeva puts it the abject has the power to terrorize the subject to such extent that he can do nothing but to succumb to contingency. In working out the idea of the contingency of selfhood, the article also draws on Richard Rorty’s approach, and in particular his concept of ironism. The latter is used to classify the main character of Witkowski’s book as a consummate ironist, i.e. a person who tests different languages in which the world can be described in order to pursue his carnal desires. Finally, the article argues that in his novel Witkowski not only brings to light the fortuitous character of the postmodern identity but also creates a heterogeneous language to express it.