The preliminary stage of asphalt mixture production involves the drying and dedusting of coarse aggregates. The most common types of coarse aggregates used are limestone and basalt. In the process of drying and dedusting the dryer filter accumulates large quantities of waste in the form of mineral powder. This paper introduces an investigation into limestone powder waste as a potential microfiller of polymer composites. Physical characteristics such as the granulation the of powder collected from the filter - in terms of the season of its collection and the type of input materials used - were analysed. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used for the investigation described within this paper. The obtained results were compared against those of other materials which can be used as polymer composites microfillers.
In this study, the effect of gas pressure on the shape and size of the AZ91 alloy powder produced by using the gas atomization method was investigated experimentally. Experiments were carried out at 820°C constant temperature in 2-mm nozzle diameter and by applying 4 different gas pressures (0.5, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 MPa). Argon gas was used to atomize the melt. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the shape of produced AZ91 powders, XRD, XRF and SEM-EDX analysis to determine the phases forming in the internal structures of the produced powders and the percentages of these phases and a laser measuring device for powder size analysis were used. Hardness tests were carried out to determine the mechanical properties of the produced powders. The general appearances of AZ91 alloy powders produced had general appearances of ligament, acicular, droplet, flake and spherical shape, but depending on the increase in gas pressure, the shape of the powders is seen to change mostly towards flake and spherical. It is determined that the finest powder was obtained at 820°C with 2 mm nozzle diameter at 3.5 MPa gas pressure and the powders had complex shapes in general.
The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of changes in the composition of raw material and agglomeration on sorption properties of a multi-component food, in the example of a powdered cocoa beverage. The basic composition of the mixtures was 20% of cocoa and 80% of sucrose. A change in raw material composition involved partial or total replacement of sucrose with a mixture of glucose and fructose, or with maltodextrin. Analysis of sorption properties demonstrated variability in the course of isotherms of water vapour sorption for components of the powdered cocoa beverage. Limiting water activity (aw) was determined for the value of 0.529. The conducted analysis detected no significant effect of agglomeration on water content in the tested products. However, a significant change in the raw material composition was demonstrated.
In this study, an oxide reduction process and a reduction-sintering process were employed to synthesize a thermoelectric alloy from three thermoelectric composite oxide powders, and the thermoelectric properties were investigated as a function of the milling duration. Fine grain sizes were analyzed by via X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, to investigate the influence of the milling duration on the synthesized samples. It was found that microstructural changes, the Seebeck coefficient, and the electrical resistivity of the compounds were highly dependent on the sample milling duration. Additionally, the carrier concentration considerably increased in the samples milled for 6 h; this was attributed to the formation of antisite defects introduced by the accumulated thermal energy. Moreover, the highest value of ZT (=1.05) was achieved at 373K by the 6-h milled samples. The temperature at which the ZT value maximized varied according to the milling duration, which implies that the milling duration of the three thermoelectric composite oxide powders should be carefully optimized for their effective application.
Porous metals show not only extremely low density, but also excellent physical, mechanical and acoustic properties. In this study, Hastelloy powders prepared by gas atomization are used to manufacture 3D geometries of Hastelloy porous metal with above 90% porosity using electrostatic powder coating process. In order to control pore size and porosity, foam is sintered at 1200~1300°C and different powder coating amount. The pore properties are evaluated using SEM and Archimedes method. As powder coating amount and sintering temperature increased, porosity is decreased from 96.4 to 94.4%. And foam density is increased from 0.323 to 0.497 g/cm3 and pore size is decreased from 98 to 560 μm. When the sintering temperature is increased, foam thickness and strut thickness are decreased from 9.85 to 8.13mm and from 366 to 292 μm.
Pre-alloyed Astaloy CrLTM (Fe-1.5 wt% Cr-0.2 wt% Mo), a commercial Fe-based alloy powder for high strength powder metallurgy products, was sintered and hot forged with additions of 0.5 wt% C and 0~2 wt% Cu. To investigate the influence of various Cu contents, the microstructural evolution was characterized using density measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Transverse rupture strength (TRS) was measured for each composition and processing stage. The correlation between Cu additions and properties of sinter-forged Fe-Cr-Mo-C alloy was discussed in detail.
The principle of work of many metallurgical shaft furnaces is based on the flow of reaction gas through the descending packed bed composed of metallurgical materials. Hot gases flow up the shaft furnace through the column of materials, give their heat to the descending charge materials. At the same time due to their reducing nature they interact chemically, causing the reduction of oxides inside the charge. In real conditions, during the course of the process, the powder is generated, the source of which is the batch materials or it is introduced into the as part of the process procedure. The powder in the form of thin slurry is carried by the stream of flowing gas. Such multiphase flow might considerably affect the permeability of the charge due to the local holdup of powder. The holdup of solid phase in packed beds of metallurgical shaft furnaces leads to radial changes in bed porosity. Radial changes in bed porosity uneven gas flow along the radius of the reactor and negatively affect the course and efficiency of the process. The article describes the model studies on radial distribution of carbon powder holdup in the packed bed composed of metallurgical materials. The powder was divided into fractions – “static” and “dynamic”. Large diversity of carbon powder distribution was observed in the function of the radius of reactor in relation to the bed type, apparent velocity of gas carrying powder and the level of bed height.
Recently, attempts have been made to use porous metal as catalysts in a reactor for the hydrogen manufacturing process using steam methane reforming (SMR). This study manufactured Ni-Cr-Al based powder porous metal, stacked cubic form porous blocks, and investigated high temperature random stack creep property. To establish an environment similar to the actual situation, a random stack jig with a 1-inch diameter and height of 75 mm was used. The porous metal used for this study had an average pore size of ~1161 μm by rolling direction. The relative density of the powder porous metal was measured as 6.72%. A compression test performed at 1073K identified that the powder porous metal had high temperature (800°C) compressive strength of 0.76 MPa. A 800°C random stack creep test at 0.38 MPa measured a steady-state creep rate of 8.58×10–10 s–1, confirming outstanding high temperature creep properties. Compared to a single cubic powder porous metal with an identical stress ratio, this is a 1,000-times lower (better) steady-state creep rate. Based on the findings above, the reason of difference in creep properties between a single creep test and random stack creep test was discussed.
Thermal/cold spray deposition were used for additive manufacture of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel layers. Mechanically alloyed F/M ODS steel powders (Fe(bal.)-10Cr-1Mo-0.25Ti-0.35Y2O3 in wt.%) were sprayed by a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and cold spray methods. HVOF, as a thermal method, was used for manufacturing a 1 mm-thick ODS steel layer with a ~95% density. The source to objective distance (SOD) and feeding rate were controlled to achieve sound manufacturing. Y2Ti2O7 nano-particles were preserved in the HVOF sprayed layer; however, unexpected Cr2O3 phases were frequently observed at the boundary area of the powders. A cold spray was used for manufacturing the Cr2O3-free layer and showed great feasibility. The density and yield of the cold spray were roughly 80% and 45%, respectively. The softening of ODS powders before the cold spray was conducted using a tube furnace of up to 1200°C. Microstructural characteristics of the cold sprayed layer were investigated by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), the uniformity of deformation amount inside powders was observed.
This article discusses results of an analysis of mechanical properties of a sintered material obtained from a mixture of elemental iron, copper and nickel powders ball milled for 60 hours. The powder consolidation was performed by hot pressing in a graphite mould. The hot pressing was carried out for 3 minutes at 900 °C and under a pressure of 35 MPa. The sintered specimens were tested for density, porosity, hardness and tensile strength. Their microstructures and fracture surfaces were also examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The study was conducted in order to determine the suitability of the sintered material for the manufacture of metal-bonded diamond tools. It was important to assess the effects of chemical composition and microstructure of the sintered material on its mechanical properties, which were compared with those of conventional metal bond material produced from a hot-pressed SMS grade cobalt powder. Although the studied material shows slightly lower strength and ductility as compared with cobalt, its hardness and offset yield strength are sufficiently high to meet the criteria for less demanding applications.
U-type ferrite typified by Ba4Co2Fe36O60 is used as a RAM (Radar Absorbing Materials) in the X-band (8-12 GHz). Ba4Co2Fe36O60 is known to have a complex crystal structure, which makes it difficult to obtain single phase and have low reproducibility. Previously known U-type ferrites have been fabricated based on a ceramic process that mixing (by a ball mill), calcining, grinding, binder mixing, drying, sieving, pressing and sintering. In contrast, the process of preparing the powder by the sol-gel method and its heat-treating is advantageous in that it can reduce the process steps and the required time. In addition, the precise stoichiometric control by the sol-gel method can effectively evaluate the effect of added or substituted elements. In this study investigates the crystal structure of Ba4Co2Fe36O60 synthesized by the sol-gel method and the morphology of U-type ferrite nano-powders according to various heat treatment conditions. Analysis of the crystal structure is used for XRD. Morphology and size are observed by SEM. In addition, VSM is performed to confirm the change of magnetic properties according to various heat treatment conditions.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of Sn addition on the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-1Zn-1Zr-xSn (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 wt.%) alloys prepared by powder-in-tube rolling (PTR) method. The PTR-treated Mg alloys reached 98.3% of theoretical density. The hardness of the alloy increased with Sn addition. Two main intermetallic phases, Mg2Sn and Zn2Zr3, were formed in the alloys. The Mg2Sn intermetallic particles were observed along the grain boundaries, while the Zn2Zr3 particles were distributed in the Mg matrix. The addition of 1 wt. % Sn caused the corrosion potential to shift toward a more positive value, and the resulting alloy exhibited low corrosion current density.
Microwave sintering process was employed to agglomerate ferromanganese alloy powders. The effects of sintering temperature, holding time and particle size composition on the properties and microstructure of sintering products were investigated. The results was shown that increasing sintering temperature or holding time appropriately is beneficial to increase the compressive strength and volume density. SEM and EDAX analysis shows that the liquid phase formed below the melting point in the sintering process, which leads to densification. XRD patterns indicate that the main reaction during microwave sintering is the decarbonization and carburization of iron carbide phase. The experiment demonstrate that the optimum microwave sintering process condition is 1150°C, 10 min and 50% content of the powders with the size of –75 μm
Usually porous metals are known as relatively excellent characteristic such as large surface area, light, lower heat capacity, high toughness and permeability for exhaust gas filter, hydrogen reformer catalyst support. The Ni alloys have high corrosion resistance, heat resistance and chemical stability for high temperature applications. In this study, the Ni-based porous metals have been developed with Hastelloy powder by gas atomization and water atomization in order to find the effects of powder shape on porous metal. Each Hastelloy powder is pressed on disk shape of 2 mm thickness with 12 tons using uniaxial press machine. The specimens are sintered at various temperatures in high vacuum condition. The pore properties were evaluated using Porometer and microstructures were observed with SEM.
The computational intelligence tool has major contribution to analyse the properties of materials without much experimentation. The B4C particles are used to improve the quality of the strength of materials. With respect to the percentage of these particles used in the micro and nano, composites may fix the mechanical properties. The different combinations of input parameters determine the characteristics of raw materials. The load, content of B4C particles with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% will determine the wear behaviour like CoF, wear rate etc. The properties of materials like stress, strain, % of elongation and impact energy are studied. The temperature based CoF and wear rate is analysed. The temperature may vary between 30°C, 100°C and 200°C. In addition, the CoF and wear rate of materials are predicted with respect to load, weight % of B4C and nano hexagonal boron nitride %. The intelligent tools like Neural Networks (BPNN, RBNN, FL and Decision tree) are applied to analyse these characteristics of micro / nano composites with the inclusion of B4C particles and nano hBN % without physically conducting the experiments in the Lab. The material properties will be classified with respect to the range of input parameters using the computational model.
Flowability of fine, highly cohesive calcium carbonate powder was improved using high energy mixing (dry coating) method consisting in coating of CaCO3 particles with a small amount of Aerosil nanoparticles in a planetary ball mill. As measures of flowability the angle of repose and compressibility index were used. As process variables the mixing speed, mixing time, and the amount of Aerosil and amount of isopropanol were chosen. To obtain optimal values of the process variables, a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was applied. To match the RSM requirements it was necessary to perform a total of 31 experimental tests needed to complete mathematical model equations. The equations that are second-order response functions representing the angle of repose and compressibility index were expressed as functions of all the process variables. Predicted values of the responses were found to be in a good agreement with experimental values. The models were presented as 3-D response surface plots from which the optimal values of the process variables could be correctly assigned. The proposed, mechanochemical method of powder treatment coupled with response surface methodology is a new, effective approach to flowability of cohesive powder improvement and powder processing optimisation.
The present investigation has been made to assess the influence of B4C reinforced with Ti-6Al-4V matrix prepared by powder metallurgy route. High energy ball milling was used to prepare the composites. Cylindrical preforms were prepared using suitable die set assembly. The green preforms were sintered in the muffle furnace at 900°C for 1 h. Further the preforms were cooled inside the furnace till the room temperature has attained. SEM with EDS mapping analysis was used to evaluate the morphology and elemental confirmation of the prepared composite. The density and hardness of the samples are determined using Archimedes principle and Rockwell hardness testing machine. The wear resistance of the samples was determined by employing a pin on disc apparatus. The hardness of the composites (Ti-6Al-4V /10B4C) was increased while comparing to the base material (Ti-6Al-4V) which is attributed to the presence of hard ceramic phase. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) five level central composite design approach was accustomed and it minimised the amount of experimental conditions and developed mathematical models among the key process parameters namely wt. % of B4C, applied load and sliding distances to forecast the abrasive response of Specific Wear Rate (SWR) and Coefficient of Friction (CoF). Analysis of variance was used to check the validity of the developed model. The optimum parameters of specific wear rate and coefficient of friction were identified.
Hot Isostatic Pressing elaboration of Norem02, an austenitic-ferritic hypereutectoid stainless steel, leads to the formation of an austenitic matrix with a mixture of acicular M7C3 and globular M23C6 carbides. The sintering tests, carried out by using an AISI 304L container, showed that the final microstructure and the carbides’ distribution of the HIPed Norem02 are strongly influenced by the process parameters (heating and cooling rate, sintering time, holding temperature and pressure) and by the particles’ size, microstructure and phase distribution of the initial powder. The morphological, crystallographic and chemical analysis of the sintered samples were completed by comprehension of the diffusion phenomena at the Norem02/304L interface, enabling the establishment of a correlation between elaboration process and final microstructure.
The densification behavior of H13 tool steel powder by dual speed laser scanning strategy have been characterized for selective laser melting process, one of powder bed fusion based metal 3d printing. Under limited given laser power, the laser re-melting increases the relative density and hardness of H13 tool steel with closing pores. The single melt-pool analysis shows that the pores are located on top area of melt pool when the scanning speed is over 400 mm/s while the low scanning speed of 200 mm/s generates pores beneath the melt pool in the form of keyhole mode with the high energy input from the laser. With the second laser scanning, the pores on top area of melt pools are efficiently closed with proper dual combination of scan speed. However pores located beneath the melt pools could not be removed by second laser scanning. When each layer of 3d printing are re-melted, the relative density and hardness are improved for most dual combination of scanning. Among the scan speed combination, the 600 mm/s by 400 mm/s leads to the highest relative density, 99.94 % with hardness of 53.5 HRC. This densification characterization with H13 tool steel laser re-melting can be efficiently applied for tool steel component manufacturing via metal 3d printing.
Rare earth Nd-Fe-B, a widely used magnet composition, was synthesized in a shape of powders using gas atomization, a rapid solidification based process. The microstructure and properties were investigated in accordance with solidification rate and densification. Detailed microstructural characterization was performed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the structural properties were measured by using X-ray diffraction. Iron in the form of α-Fe phase was observed in powder of about 30 μm. It was expected that fraction of Nd2Fe14B phase increased rapidly with decrease in powder size, on the other hand that of α-Fe phase was decreased. Nd-rich phase diffused from grain boundary to particle boundary after hot deformation due to capillary action. The coercivity of the alloy decreased with increase in powder size. After hot deformation, Nd2Fe14B phase tend to align to c-axis.
The aim was to explore the feasibility of using bamboo vinegar powder as an antibiotics substitute in weaning piglets. Forty-five healthy Duroc × Landrance × Yorshire piglets (weight 6.74 ± 0.17 kg; age 31 days) were randomly divided into the control group (basic diet), ANT group (basic diet + 0.12% compound antibiotics), BV1 group (basic diet + 0.1% bamboo vinegar powder), BV5 group (basic diet + 0.5% bamboo vinegar powder) and BV10 group (basic diet + 1% bamboo vinegar powder). MyD88 and CD14 expression in immune tissues was examined using real-time PCR. MyD88 expression in the control group were significantly lower than that in other groups in all tissues (p<0.05), while CD14 expression showed the opposite trend. MyD88 expression was significantly higher in the BV10 group than in other groups in lung tissue (P<0.05), significantly higher in the ANT group than in the BV1 group in the kidneys (P<0.05), significantly higher in the BV10 group than in the BV1 group in the thymus (P<0.05), and signifi- cantly higher in the BV1 group than in the BV10 group in the lymphatic tissue (P<0.05). These differences between experimental groups were not observed for the CD14 gene (P>0.05). Thus, adding bamboo vinegar powder to the basic diet of weaning piglets had immune effects similar to antibiotics and the effect was dose-dependent. Moreover, the MyD88 and CD14 genes appear to play a role in these immune effects
The preliminary results of the application of open-celled glassy-carbon foam (Cof) in magnesium matrix composites processed by the powder metallurgy method were presented. For the component consolidation, compaction with vertically-torsional vibration and hot-pressing were applied. For the material characterization, the microstructure examination LM and SEM with EDS was employed and also, the porosity and microhardness were measured. An influence of the carbon foam cells’ size on the composite porosity and microhardness was revealed. Additionally, a generation of a few micrometer thin and differently shaped MgO inclusions was observed. Differences in the oxide phase amount, size and shape in the magnesium matrix measured by the quantitative metallography method in the cross-sectioned composite elements were stated. With an increase of the distance from the composite roller top, an increase of the MgO content and microhardness was noticed.
An ecoefficient, economical and sustainable valorization process for the synthesis of Co3O4 from waste lithium-ion battery (LIB) by leaching-solvent extract-scrubbing-precipitation stripping route has been developed. Through an optimization, the waste LIB cathode was leached using 2000 mole/m3 of H2SO4 and 5 Vol. % of the H2O2 at a pulp density of 100 kg/m3 under leaching time 60 minutes and temperature 75 °C. From the separated leach liquor, cobalt was purified by saponified Cyanex 272. From cobalt, loaded Cyanex 272 impurities were scrubbed and the CoC2O4·2H2O was recovered through precipitation stripping. Finally, the precipitate was calcined to synthesize Co3O4, which is a precursor for LIB cathode materials manufacturing. From TGA-DTA, followed by XRD analysis it was confirmed that at 200 °C the CoC2O4·2H2O can be converted to anhydrous CoC2O4 and at 350 °C the anhydrous can be converted to Co3O4 and at 1100 °C the Co3O4 can be converted to CoO. Through reported route waste LIB can back to LIB manufacturing process through a versatile and flexible industrial approach.