Programming frameworks  are application generators with the following components: library of software modules (building blocks out of which the system is constructed), a method for designing new modules that can be appended to the above mentioned library, a pattern according to which ready modules can be assembled into a complete system jointly exerting control over it and realizing the task at hand. The presented transition function based formalism can be applied to specifying programming frameworks for robot controllers executing very diverse tasks. The paper deals with systems consisting of multiple embodied agents, influencing the environment through e#27;ectors, gathering information from the environment through sensors and communicating with other agents through communication channels. The presented code patterns pertain to behavioural agents. The formalism was instrumental in the design of MRROC++ robot programming framework, which has been used for producing controllers of single and two manipulator systems performing diverse tasks. The formalism introduces rigor into the discussion of the structure of embodied agent controllers. It is used as the means for the specification of the functions of the components of the control system and the structure of the communication links between them. This structures the implementation of a programming framework, and that in turn makes the coding of specific controllers much easier, both from the point of view of dealing with the hardware configuration of the system and the specific task that has to be executed.
In this paper we present results of systematic and comprehensive simulation analysis of the Tsao & Safonov unfalsified controller for complex robot manipulators. In particular, we show that the controller falsification procedure yields the closedloop unfalsified controller, which accomplishes the control objective, within a finite and relatively short time interval with the number of invocations of linear programming based unfalsified controller selection procedure being relatively small. We also present some conclusions resulting from the investigation of the e#27;ect of such elements as manipulator structure complexity, prior knowledge about disturbances, reference trajectory and assigned closed-loop spectrum on unfalsified controller performance and computational complexity.
Good practices in the creation of the Commune Revitalization Program – cooperation between the University of Adam Mickiewicz and the City of Kalisz, The entry of the Revitalization Act on November 18, 2015 enabled municipalities to efficiently plan and conduct the process of moving degraded areas out of the crisis. The Act introduced key regulations affecting the programming of revitalization in Poland. One of the most important instruments is the Municipal Revitalization Program. In order to be able to fully use the potential of this document, we should look for solutions that allow creating the most comprehensive solutions. One of the examples of such activities is cooperation between the university and the local government. Thanks to this combination of practical knowledge of officials with theoretical knowledge of academic experts, we can say that it is a project unique in the country. It is also unique due to the fact that spatial economy students who actively participated in the document creation process were included in the work. The aim of the work is to present the course of the cooperation process of the University of Adam Mickiewicz with the Office during the preparation of the Municipal Revitalization Program for the city of Kalisz and showing the role that the students included in the project played in this project
The article is part of the trend of research on revitalization. It presents the methodology of the process of diagnosis and separation of the degraded area from the revitalized one, for the needs of the Local Revitalization Program. The article describes the stages of the process, the examples of used measures, as well as problems appearing at diff erent stages of the study. The methodology is presented on the example of the small town of Wojkowice from the Śląskie Province.
The revitalization of brownfi elds and post-industrial facilities is a long-term and multistage process. In the first stage of revitalization, it is important to assess the material, emotional and utilitarian value of the preserved cultural heritage. On the example of a revitalization project that has been ongoing since 1996, the former areas of the Gdańsk Shipyard, where the remains of the Imperial Shipyard and Schichau Shipyard are located, the process of formulating the value of the preserved cultural material heritage has been presented. The impact of this process on the subsequent stages of the revitalization of the Young City in Gdańsk was also presented. Gdańsk Shipyard is the cradle of Solidarity, so the emotional value associated with the events accompanying the creation of the Solidarity movement was considered to be the dominant one. Only two objects were entered in the register of monuments; BHP Hall and Solidarity Square (Plac Solidarności). When the Local Development Plan has been passed many investments have begun by various investors without comprehensive integrated activities. The demolition of the preserved halls and the dismantling of shipyard equipment began. This caused that in 2015 the uniqueness of the survived post-industrial complex, qualifying it for inclusion in the World Heritage list, was appreciated. In 2018, the Provincial Pomeranian Monument’s Conservator began the procedure of entry of the preserved objects to the register of monuments. This resulted in the suspension of all investments that commenced legally in the area covered by the proceedings. Lack of proper assessment of the cultural value of material heritage at the stage of preparing the revitalization process led to the loss of part of this heritage and caused increase of the investment activities risk in this area.
Poland’s National Vaccination Program is an essential element in the strategy of prevention of infectious diseases and their complications, here considered with a particular focus on combination vaccines and the need for the Program’s further expansion.
This paper presents revised and extended version of theory proposed in the late 1970-ties by A. ˇCyras and his co-workers. This theory, based upon the notion of duality in mathematical programming, allows us to generate variational principles and to investigate existence and uniqueness of solutions for the broad class of problems of elasticity and plasticity. The paper covers analysis of solids made of linear elastic, elastic-strain hardening, elastic-perfectly plastic and rigid-perfectly plastic material. The novelty with respect to ˇCyras’s theory lies in taking into account loads dispersed over the volume and displacements enforced on the part of surface. A new interpretation of optimum load for a rigid-perfectly plastic body is also given.
The second part of the paper presents ﬁnite-dimensional models of linear elastic, elastic-strain hardening, elastic-perfectly plastic and rigid-perfectly plastic structures. These models can be seen as a result of discretisation procedure applied to the models of solids derived in the Part I. The implications of sub-dividing degrees of freedom into those with prescribed external forces and those with given displacements are discussed. It is pointed out that the dual energy principles given in this part of the paper can serve as a direct basis for numerical computations.
Experiences of subregional cities in programming of urban renewal. The aim of the article is to analyze and evaluate the experience of selected subregional cities in revitalization programming. At the beginning, the strategic policy of the state towards subregional centers was defined. The guidelines from the National Spatial Development Concept, the National Urban Policy and the Strategy for Responsible Development were pointed out. Then, examine in detail the activities carried out so far in 4 cities, which as a result of the administrative reform in 1999 lost the status of the provincial city, i.e. in Ciechanów, Legnica, Piła and Przemyśl. Current documents have been characterized, in particular, the specificity of areas covered by revitalization has been described. Next, the leading directions of transformations of these areas were presented, resulting from the adopted revitalization policy. This allowed for the formulation of certain generalizations about the specificity of the process of renewal of degraded areas in subregional centers in Poland.
Dynamic development in children’s research has led to surprising discoveries about the learning and thinking patterns of fetuses, infants and young children. These studies have revolutionized not only our knowledge of children, but also our understanding of the nature of the human mind and brain. Moreover, within this context, it is believed that many areas of adulthood are the result of the experiences and changes that occur during the fetal period and in childhood. These experiences, therefore, are crucial for human development and what people achieve in the following stages of their lives. The results of the research on brain development during the fetal period and during childhood presented here, reveal a new perspective for understanding the essence and nature of the learning process. These studies also strongly suggest that the first two thousand days of a child’s life are critical in developing many basic human skills. Therefore, we must take great care of the quality of environment for a child’s development.
Art. 52 sec. 1 of the Regeneration Act of 9 October 2015 allowed municipalities which, at the time of its entry into force, did not have a valid revitalization program, to carry out revitalization activities on the basis of a revitalization program other than the municipal revitalization program. The choice of procedure was left by the legislature of the municipality, assuming that at the initial stage of the implementation of the law, only the municipality should test its instrument, referring to the nature and scale of its needs. The ROP Managing Authority in Małopolska as the only one in the country introduced the requirement of developing municipal revitalization programs for all municipalities that did not have a current revitalization program at the time of the entry into force of the Act. Therefore, these municipalities, in order to benefi t from EU funding under ROP WM 2014-2020 for revitalization activities planned in the programs, were not able to rely on the derogation contained in art. 52 sec. 1 of the Act. Regardless of the size of the municipality and the nature of revitalization needs, they were compelled to develop a document complying with the statutory procedure, the fi rst stage being the delimitation of the degraded area and the revitalization area and confi rmation by the resolution of the municipality council. As a result Małopolskie Voivodeship has become Poland’s largest laboratory of methodology of delimitation of these areas and development of revitalization programs. The aim of the article is to present the diversity of applied methodological approaches to the delimitation of revitalization areas in Małopolskie Voivodeship and to describe the most noteworthy, as well as to indicate the most common errors in the designation of these areas.
This paper includes a description of both the mode of development and the final structure and contents of the Municipal Revitalization Program, which was developed for the City of Starogard Gdański. All key parts of this program were described as well as methods used for planning the diverse activities associated with revitalization of the municipality. These were based on both actual legislation – of both national and regional importnace – as well as on Author’s own experience in this matter. In result, the article can serve as the example of one of the possible ways of developing the complex program of urban transformation for the medium-sized municipality.
Both the landscape shaped and recognized as valuable, as well as the internally incoherent, low-value landscape are the basis on which the development and transformation of culture, social ties and ties with the place take place. Shaping the landscape is associated with among others, on identity, creativity and responsibility for the place. The social eff ects of building a valuable, attractive landscape, including the urban landscape, are determined by many activities, not only those related to building and functioning of the built environment. Communal revitalization programs emphasize the importance of the aesthetics of public places and undertake the eff ort to involve the local community in increasing the aesthetics of the neighborhood and semi-public spaces. However, landscape themes appear sporadically at the occasion of discussing the attractiveness of a place of residence and are intuitively intertwined with the issues of the quality of public spaces and green areas. The shaping of the urban landscape is signifi cantly associated with innovation [Bach-Głowińska 2014]. As a result of research into the relationship between space, the sense of belonging and innovation, there are some initial recommendations for providing elements that stimulate the user’s creativity while shaping the urban landscape. In the developed methodology of the smartest place, the determination of stakeholders takes place, among others thanks to the use of an online survey, then meetings are held with those involved in the co-creation session, which aim to definitively determine the form of landscape that best suits their needs and at the same time have the chance to stimulate their creativity
In the paper the new constructions of robots, modern technologies of painting and newest methods of paint robots programming were presented. Fanuc P-250iA robot using to painting was characterized. The general characteristic of robot with controller R-30iA was demonstrated. The technology and the paint equipment applied to paint frames and load-carrying boxes was shown. The possibilities of simulation software Roboguide were presented exactly, which is a tool for robot environment simulation on a computer PC. Roboguide system application can reduce the programming time of robots and necessary programs optimization conducted before implementation to production.
Precise measurement of rail vehicle velocities is an essential prerequisite for the implementation of modern train control systems and the improvement of transportation capacity and logistics. Novel eddy current sensor systems make it possible to estimate velocity by using cross-correlation techniques, which show a decline in precision in areas of high accelerations. This is due to signal distortions within the correlation interval. We propose to overcome these problems by employing algorithms from the field of dynamic programming. In this paper we evaluate the application of correlation optimized warping, an enhanced version of dynamic time warping algorithms, and compare it with the classical algorithm for estimating rail vehicle velocities in areas of high accelerations and decelerations.
The main optimized objects in underground mines include: stope layout, access layout and production scheduling. It is common to optimize each component sequentially, where optimal results from one phase are regarded as the input data for the next phase. Numerous methods have been developed and implemented to achieve the optimal solution for each component. In fact, the interaction between different phases is ignored in the tradition optimization models which only get the suboptimal solution compared to the integrated optimization model. This paper proposes a simultaneous integrated optimization model to optimize the three components at the same time. The model not only optimizes the mining layout to maximize the Net Present Value (NPV), but also considers the extension sequence of stope extraction and access excavation. The production capacity and ore quality requirement are also taken into account to keep the mining process stable in all mine life. The model is validated to a gold deposit in China. A two-dimensional block model is built to do the resource estimation due to the clear boundary of the hanging wall and footwall. The thickness and accumulation of each block is estimated by Ordinary Kriging (OK). In addition, the conditional simulation method is utilized to generate a series of orebodies with equal possibility. The optimal solution of optimization model is carried out on each simulated orebody to evaluate the influence of geological uncertainty on the optimal mining design and production scheduling. The risk of grade uncertainty is quantified by the possibility of obtaining the expected NPV. The results indicate that the optimization model has the ability to produce an optimal solution that has a good performance under the uncertainty of grade variability.
A new soft-fault diagnosis approach for analog circuits with parameter tolerance is proposed in this paper. The approach uses the fuzzy nonlinear programming (FNLP) concept to diagnose an analog circuit under test quantitatively. Node-voltage incremental equations, as constraints of FNLP equation, are built based on the sensitivity analysis. Through evaluating the parameters deviations from the solution of the FNLP equation, it enables us to state whether the actual parameters are within tolerance ranges or some components are faulty. Examples illustrate the proposed approach and show its effectiveness.
The basic resource of urban planning is space, which as a result of transformation has a direct impact on socio-economic development and quality of life. The author’s purpose was to define planning solutions for urban spatial policy, which can raise the quality of living, especially in the residential environment. In connection with the above, the literature of the subject was analysed and examples of good spatial policy and urban development in the living environment were shown. Particular attention was paid to the planning solutions in Paris and Vienna, as well as to the examples of the new living environment creation in some Scandinavian cities.
The main objective of the article is to assess the changes in carbon dioxide emissions in residential sector caused by the implementation of the plans contained in the Air Protection Programs, anti-smog resolutions adopted in 9 voivodeships and the nationwide “Clean Air” program. The reduction of emissions of pollutants which directly affecting air quality and human health, i.e. particulate matter and benz(a)pyrene, which residential sector is the main source, can also affect the amount of emitted of carbon dioxide. To determine the changes in carbon dioxide emissions in the residential sector, emissions of CO2 in base year of 2017 from various energy carriers were determined, plans for reducing of low-stack emission were reviewed and the future structure of energy carriers used in households was estimated. The processes of increasing the efficiency of energy use through both the replacement of boilers and thermomodernization were also taken into account. The obtained results show that the highest CO2 emission reduction of 6% is achieved in case of “Clean Air” program. In frame of this program in 3.5 million of single-family houses a heating system replacement and thermomodernization is planned. Implementation of plans included on Air Protection Programs and anti-smog resolutions can lead to a relatively small (approx. 1%) reduction of CO2 compared to base year 2017. The detailed results of future fuel consumption and CO2 emission for individual voivodeships and for the whole of Poland was presented.
According to the Grant Map of the Ministry of Development (MoD) as of March-April 2017, there were 1716 urban regeneration (revitalization) projects implemented in Poland between 2007-2013. Data from 11 voivodeships (out of 16 regions NUTS 2 in Poland) and 977 projects was sufficient to provide a representative sample (56,9% of projects presented in the Grant Map). The main methods used in the article included observation and review of MoD statistical data and literature on the subject. As observed by the author, between 2007-2013 the definition of urban regeneration (revitalization) was only mentioned in one of the footnotes to the housing guidelines, which was a poor legal basis for the regional managing authorities. Similarly, there was no solid basis in the strategic documents (national) for that period: they did not provide any definition of revitalization. It was in the interest of the beneficiaries, as well as – partly – in the interest of those managing authorities to satisfy the local needs, especially those needs which were not considered the result of the shift to the post-industrial era, but rather as a result of numerous institutional and political events. Due to these features, the period 2007-2013 was dominated by infrastructure projects aimed at the quality of life but also efficient in terms of spending European money. It seems that there was an agreement between regional managing authorities and the benefi ciaries (potential voters) as to the way of spending the revitalization funding. This was understood differently at national level, but because institutions at this level were not involved directly in the urban regeneration (revitalization), their influence on regional units was minor. Even more so because the managing authorities were also interested in speeding up the process of spending European resources.
The paper refers to planning deliveries of food products (especially those available in certain seasons) to the recipients: supermarket networks. The paper presents two approaches to solving problems of simultaneous selection of suppliers and transportation modes and construction of product flow schedules with these transportation modes. Linear mathematical models have been built for the presented solution approaches. The cost criterion has been taken into consideration in them. The following costs have been taken into account: purchase of products by individual recipients, transport services, storing of products supplied before the planned deadlines and penalties for delays in supply of products. Two solution approaches (used for transportation planning and selection of suppliers and selection of transportation modes) have been compared. The monolithic approach calls for simultaneous solutions for the problems of supplier selection and selection of transportation modes. In the alternative (hierarchical) solution approach, suppliers are selected first, and then transportation companies and their relevant transportation modes are selected. The results of computational experiments are used for comparison of the hierarchical and monolithic solution approaches.
In the paper, we present a coordinated production planning and scheduling problem for three major shops in a typical alloy casting foundry, i.e. a melting shop, molding shop with automatic line and a core shop. The castings, prepared from different metal, have different weight and different number of cores. Although core preparation does not required as strict coordination with molding plan as metal preparation in furnaces, some cores may have limited shelf life, depending on the material used, or at least it is usually not the best organizational practice to prepare them long in advance. Core shop have limited capacity, so the cores for castings that require multiple cores should be prepared earlier. We present a mixed integer programming model for the coordinated production planning and scheduling problem of the shops. Then we propose a simple Lagrangian relaxation heuristic and evolutionary based heuristic to solve the coordinated problem. The applicability of the proposed solution in industrial practice is verified on large instances of the problem with the data simulating actual production parameters in one of the medium size foundry.
The work presented in the paper concerns a very important problem of searching for string alignments. The authors show that the problem of a genome pattern alignment could be interpreted and defined as a measuring task, where the distance between two (or more) patterns is investigated. The problem originates from modern computation biology. Hardware-based implementations have been driving out software solutions in the field recently. The complex programmable devices have become very commonly applied. The paper introduces a new, optimized approach based on the Smith-Waterman dynamic programming algorithm. The original algorithm is modified in order to simplify data-path processing and take advantage of the properties offered by FPGA devices. The results obtained with the proposed methodology allow to reduce the size of the functional block and radically speed up the processing time. This approach is very competitive compared with other related works.
Saccharamyces cerevisia known as baker’s yeast is a product used in various food industries. Worldwide economic competition makes it a necessity that industrial processes be operated in optimum conditions, thus maximisation of biomass in production of saccharamyces cerevisia in fedbatch reactors has gained importance. The facts that the dynamic fermentation model must be considered as a constraint in the optimisation problem, and dynamics involved are complicated, make optimisation of fed-batch processes more difficult. In this work, the amount of biomass in the production of baker’s yeast in fed-batch fermenters was intended to be maximised while minimising unwanted alcohol formation, by regulating substrate and air feed rates. This multiobjective problem has been tackled earlier only from the point of view of finding optimum substrate rate, but no account of air feed rate profiles has been provided. Control vector parameterisation approach was applied the original dynamic optimisation problem which was converted into a NLP problem. Then SQP was used for solving the dynamic optimisation problem. The results demonstrate that optimum substrate and air feeding profiles can be obtained by the proposed optimisation algorithm to achieve the two conflicting goals of maximising biomass and minimising alcohol formation.