To investigate the mechanical properties of tunnel lining concrete under different moderate-low strain rates after high temperatures, uniaxial compression tests in association with ultrasonic tests were performed. Test results show that the ultrasonic wave velocity and mass loss of concrete specimen begin to sharply drop after high temperatures of 600°C and 400°C, respectively, at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of specimen increase with increasing strain rate after the same temperature, but it is difficult to obtain an evident change law of peak strain with increasing strain rate. The compressive strength of concrete specimen decreases first, and then increases, but decreases again in the temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800°C at the strain rates of 10‒5s‒1 to 10‒2s‒1. It can be observed that the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of specimen increases with increasing temperature. In addition, the peak strain also increases but the elastic modulus decreases substantially with increasing temperature under the same strain rate.
The results presented in this article are part of the research on fatigue life of various foundry alloys carried out in recent years in the Lukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Precision Mechanics and AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering. The article discusses the test results obtained for the EN-GJS-600-3 cast iron in an original modified low-cycle fatigue test (MLCF), which seems to be a beneficial research tool allowing its users to evaluate the mechanical properties of materials with microstructural heterogeneities under both static and dynamic loads. For a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical behaviour with a focus on fatigue life of alloys, an original modified low cycle fatigue method (MLCF) adapted to the actually available test machine was used. The results of metallographic examinations carried out by light microscopy were also presented. From the analysis of the results of the conducted mechanical tests and structural examinations it follows that the MLCF method is fully applicable in a quick and economically justified assessment of the quality of ductile iron after normalizing treatment.
The impacts of industrial wastewater contamination on the geotechnical properties of clayey soil have been studied in the research presented in this paper. The contaminant in question is industrial wastewater released from Thi-Qar oil refinery as a by-product of production, and the soil samples obtained from Thi-Qar oil refinery plant in Al-Nassyriah (a city located in the south of Iraq). The geotechnical properties of contaminated soil samples were compared with those of intact soil to measure the effects of such a contaminant. The soil samples were obtained from three locations in the study area; representing the highly contaminated area, the slightly contaminated area, and the intact area used as a reference for comparison of test results. The results of the tests showed that the contaminant causes an increase of natural moisture content, field unit weight, Atterberg’s limits, and maximum dry unit weight, as well as an increase of the compression index and the coefficient of vertical consolidation. Also, the contaminant causes a decrease in specific gravity, the optimum moisture content initial void ratio, the swelling index, the coefficient of permeability, and cohesion between soil particles.
Peat soils (FAO — Gelic Histosols) in the southern Bellsund coast area occur on slopes and terraces. They are formed in places favourable for plant growth, i.e. adequately moistened and fertilized largely with bird excrements. These formations belong to moss peats which are generally decomposed weakly and moderately to about 0.5 m depth. Their content of organic matter is equal to about 30-90%, but it is higher in terrace peats. The latter are more acidified than slope peats. The reaction both of slope and terrace peat soils is as a rule, slightly acid or neutral, and CaC03 content does not exceed 10%. As regards the content of macroelements, that of Al is the highest followed by Ca, Fe, Mg and P. Little K and Ti, and only traces of Na are found. Microelements occur in the following sequence: Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co, Cd. Particularly Mn, Zn as well as Cu and Cd were found in a higher concentration. Slope peat soils are richer in macro- and microelements than terrace ones, e.g. 4 times in the case of Mg. Peat soils poor in ash parts (up to 25% ash), contain the fewest elements. Some regularities concern also a vertical distribution of the particular profiles but only with regard to terrace peat soils.
The Legnica deposit is one of the most prospective in the context of future lignite mining. Its extraction will be inseparable from the removal of the rocks of the overburden, the volume of which is very large. Due to the raw material properties, some of the rocks can be classified as accompanying minerals. The raw material identification of overburden sediments in the Legnica lignite deposit is insufficient. So far, they haven’t been the subject of detailed and comprehensive research to prove their usefulness. The article was a summary of the knowledge on this subject. The following should be included in the accompanying minerals: Quaternary sands and gravels, tertiary sands and clays (Poznan clays). They are present in two colour variants in the Legnica deposit - and fiery. The mineral composition of greenish-blue clays allows them to be included in illite-kaolinite- smectite varieties, in turn fiery clays as kaolinite-illite-smectite varieties. The tertiary clays are a very useful raw material for the production of building materials. In addition, they are potential mineral sorbents due to the nature of the association of clay minerals (occurrence of montmorillonite). They also show suitability for building waterproofing barriers. Quaternary gravels and sands, developed in the overburden Legnica deposit are differentiated raw materials. Some of them are raw materials for the construction industry. The glacial tills can be used as a component of ceramic mixtures. Tertiary sands can be used as a proppant material. The information on the raw material properties of these sediments will be one of the essential criteria for their treatment as accompanying minerals. Minerals accompanying those developed in the Legnica deposit should be exploited and deposited selectively. The creation of anthropogenic deposits accumulating these minerals will provide the possibility of their use for decades after the termination of operation.
For the purpose of making of a solid body of an electric guitar the acoustic- and mechanical properties of walnut- (Juglans regia L.) and ash wood (Fraxinus excelsior L.) were researched. The acoustic properties were determined in a flexural vibration response of laboratory conditioned wood elements of 430 × 186 × 42.8 mm used for making of a solid body of an electric guitar. The velocity of shearand compression ultrasonic waves was additionally determined in parallel small oriented samples of 80 × 40 × 40 mm. The research confirmed better mechanical properties of ash wood, that is, the larger modulus of elasticity and shear modules in all anatomical directions and planes. The acoustic quality of ash wood was better only in the basic vibration mode. Walnut was, on the other hand, lighter and more homogenous and had lower acoustic- and mechanical anisotropy. Additionally, reduced damping of walnut at higher vibration modes is assumed to have a positive impact on the vibration response of future modelled and built solid bodies of electric guitars. When choosing walnut wood, better energy transfer is expected at a similar string playing frequency and a structure resonance of the electric guitar.
The efficient, stable and reliable operation of the blast furnace secures the proper quality of coke, which is one of the basic components of the blast furnace charge. In modern blast-furnace technology, when using substitute fuels, i.e. coal dust, the role of coke is extremely important. For this reason, the demands placed on its quality increase. Domestic coking plants have a limited base of Polish high quality coking coals at their disposal, therefore the full use of their coking properties is extremely important. The grain composition of the coal blend is one of the basic factors affecting the quality of the produced coke. This influence depends on the quantity and quality of coal components that make up the blend. In the conducted research, 21 coking coals, differing significantly in the degree of rank and origin (Polish and overseas coals), it was shown that the separated grain classes differ in properties, both coking properties and the degree of devolatalization during heating. In analyzing the obtained results, it was observed that the grain volume growth occurs essentially in the temperature range between the beginning and the maximum of fluidity. It has been shown that there is a linear correlation between the temperature corresponding to maximum fluidity and the temperature at which the maximum rate of evolution of volatiles enters. The presented phenomena accompany the emergence of coal expansion pressure during the coking process and they are its primary causes. The presented results can be an important guide for preparing the milling of coal for the coking process.
Electrochemical Cr coatings doped with diamond nanoparticles were deposited on sintered steels with different carbon contents (0.2-0.8 wt.-%). The mechanical properties of surfaces as hardness and wear resistance increase as compared to the steel substrate. Microcutting and microgridding mechanisms were observed after tribological tests, but also adhesive wear in some areas was observed. X-ray examination indicated that the layer was textured, with the exception of the sample with the highest concentration of diamond nanoparticles in the electrolyte (42 g/l). The intensity ratio ICr110/ICr200 was calculated and compared with the indices for a standard sample. The greatest differences in the intensity ratio occurred for the samples with low carbon content (0.2%C). On the other hand, more the material is textured the greater the difference.
For quality grey cast iron production, the challenging issues are to avoid cementite structure and obtain the desired graphite morphology with proper matrix as well as hardness. The objective of the present research is to find out the right combination of preconditioner and inoculant that may help to overcome the challenges. In this work, sulphur content is kept low (0.01%). Two preconditioners namely metallurgical SiC and zirconium bearing FeSi with two types of inoculant are individually used to make four combinations of sample and for each case metal is poured into the green sand mould. Finally Brinell hardness and graphite morphology is observed in the thickest and thinnest portions of the castings. Metallurgical SiC with barium bearing inoculant gives better graphite morphology and hardness than strontium bearing inoculant, on the other hand zirconium bearing FeSi gives more satisfying result than SiC with every type of inoculant. Among all of the combinations Zr bearing preconditioner with Ba bearing inoculant gives good graphite morphology with best mechanical properties in both thickest and thinnest portions of the casting.
Heating of steel or structural aluminum alloys at a speed of 2 to 50 K/min – characterizing the fire conditions – leads to a reduction in mechanical properties of the analyzed alloys. The limit of proportionality fp, real fy and proof f₀₂ yield limit, breaking strength fu and longitudinal limit of elasticity E decrease as the temperature increases. Quantitative evaluation of the thermal conversion in strengths of structural alloys is published in Eurocodes 3 and 9, in the form of dimensionless graphs depicting reduction coefficients and selected (tabulated) discrete values of mechanical properties. The author’s proposal for an analytical formulation of code curves describing thermal reduction of elasticity modulus and strengths of structural alloys recommended for an application in building structures is presented in this paper.
The transitional siliceous rocks from the Belchatow lignite deposit belong to the deposits with heterogeneous petrographic composition. The research allows us to identify among others, opoka-rocks and gaizes. The mineralogical-chemical analysis proves that the main ingredients of the studied rocks commonly used as building material are minerals of the SiO₂ group. Laboratory tests show that the nature of siliceous mineral phases has several effects on the geomechanical parameters of the studied transitional rocks. They are a reduction in water content and rock porosity, which leads to the transition of opal type A to opal type crystobalit and trydymit and then to quartz or microquartz. Their density and strength parameters are increased.
AISI 316L/TiB2/2p composites were manufactured by HP-HT using different pressures (5 and 7 GPa) and temperatures (900-1300°C), with constant reinforcing particle content 2 vol%. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated on the basis of hardness (HV0.3) and compression tests (20°C, 10−5 s−1). The results showed that the role of sintering pressure increased with increasing process temperature. At temperatures of 900°C and pressures of 5 and 7 GPa the difference in measured values of compressive strength was 1-2%, while at 1300°C they reached 20%. At constant pressure of 5 GPa, a change in hardness and compressive strength of 40% were obtained with a temperature change of 900 to 1300°C. Changes in mechanical properties in the composite occurred without substantial changes in density, microstructure, reinforcement phase distribution, and phase composition in the matrix.
The author claims that Marx’s ideas have succeeded, the proletariat has been victorious in the class conflict but the victory is completely different from what Marx has expected. The vision of the proletariat state ended up in a total failure. The vestiges of Marx’s proposal testify to complete inapplicability of his main ideas to the circumstances of the contemporary world. The concept of a state managed by the proletariat class turned out to be defective. The ownership of the means of production has failed. The concept of private property defended itself and has even been strengthened. And where a public ownership won the upper hand, as in State Treasury, it turned out to be institutional and not collective. Moreover, the state interferes more and more vigorously in private businesses and their activities. On the other hand, however, the proletariat succeeded in the area of employment law where it won some durable legal guarantees. Thus Marx correctly perceived certain needs of the proletariat but proposed inapt solutions to them.
Faecal Enterococcus hirae from domestic ducks were studied for their bioactivity to select bioactive strain for more detailed study with its probable use in poultry and also to bring novelty in basic research. After defecation, faeces (n=23, faecal mixture of 40 ducks) were sampled from domestic ducks in eastern Slovakia; birds were aged from eight to 14 weeks. E. hirae strains were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry with a highly probable species identification score (2.300-3.000) or a secure genus identification/ /probable species identification score (2.000-2.299), confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and phenotypization in accordance with the properties for the type strain E. hirae ATCC 9790. Strains were hemolysis negative (γ-hemolysis), and did not have active enzyme stimulating disorders. Enterocin genes were detected in three strains out of seven. Three out of four Enterocin genes were detected in Kč1/b (Ent A, P, L50A); the most frequently detected was the Ent P gene. The strains inhibited indicator strains E. faecalis, listeriae, but also Escherichia coli and Buttiauxiella strains. Lactic-acid producing E. hirae were mostly susceptible to antibiotics. Based on parameter evaluation, E. hirae Kč1/b, Kč6 can be additionally studied to select the type of bioactive substance.
The article is a review of the current theoretical achievements in the context of the discussion on the shape and validity of the property tax reform in Poland, indicated in the endogenous development of municipalities. The conclusions contained in the article are an attempt to join in a scientifi c discussion on the subject of property taxation. They constitute a proposal of formulated recommendations necessary from the point of view of legitimacy of collecting property taxes and the implementation of the new system of ad valorem tax.
In this work, the influence of microwave drying parameters such as irradiation time and microwave power level on the properties of synthetic moulding sands is presented. Determination of compressive strength Rc s, shear strength Rt s and permeability Ps of synthetic moulding sands with the addition of two different bentonites, after drying process with variable microwave parameters were made. The research works were carried out using the microwave oven with regulated power range of the electromagnetic field. From the results obtained, the significant influence of both drying time and microwave power level on the selected properties of moulding sands was observed. In comparison to the conventional drying method, microwave drying allows to obtain higher compressive strength of the synthetic moulding sand. The influence of application microwave irradiation on permeability was not observed. Higher strength characteristics and shorter drying time are major advantages of application of the electromagnetic irradiation for drying of the synthetic moulding sand with regard to conventional drying method.
Final quality of casts produced in a die casting process represents a correlation of setting of technological parameters of die casting cycle, properties of alloy, construction of a die and structure of gating and of bleeding systems. Suitable structure of a gating system with an appertaining bleeding system of the die can significantly influence mechanical and structural properties of a cast. The submitted paper focuses on influence of position of outfall of an gate into the cast on its selected quality properties. Layout of the test casts in the die was designed to provide filling of a shaping cavity by the melt with diverse character of flowing. Setting of input technological parameters during experiment remained on a constant level. The only variable was the position of the gate. Homogeneity represented by porosity f and ultimate strength Rm were selected to be the assessed representative quality properties of the cast. The tests of the influence upon monitored parameters were realized in two stages. The test gating system was primarily subjected to numerical tests with the utilization of a simulation program NovaFlow&Solid. Consequently, the results were verified by the experimental tests carried out with the physical casts produced during operation. It was proved that diverse placement of the gate in relation to the cast influences the mode of the melt flowing through the shaping cavity which is reflected in the porosity of the casts. The experimental test proved correlation of porosity f of the cast with its ultimate strength Rm. At the end of the paper, the interaction dependencies between the gate position, the mode of filling the die cavity, porosity f and ultimate strength Rm.
The paper discusses experimental studies to determine the effect of the die working portion angle on the lubrication conditions, zinc coating thickness and the mechanical properties of medium-carbon steel wires. The test material was 5.5 mm-diameter wire rod which was drawn into 2.2 mm-diameter wire in seven draws at a drawing speed of v = 10 m/s. Conventional drawing dies of a working portion angle of α = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7°, respectively, were used for the drawing process. After the drawing process, the quantity of the lubricant on the wire surface and the thickness of the zinc coating were determined in individual draws. Testing the finished 2.2 mm-diameter wires for mechanical properties, on the other hand, determined the effect of the die working portion on the yield point, tensile strength, uniform and total elongation, reduction in area, the number of twists and the number of bends.
In this study the current legal and market conditions of waste management in Poland are analyzed. The main legal basis for changes in the national municipal waste management system and their impact on the market situation in the last few years have been determined. Additionally, the important function of the selective collection and the key role of the separation of raw material fractions in waste sorting plants constituting the basis for the operation of Regional Municipal Waste Processing (RMWP) plants was underlined. Furthermore, the possibilities of developing electricity production technology in low and medium power modules using waste gasification techniques were emphasized. The stream of plastic mixture from municipal waste sorting was identified as problematic in the context of effective material recovery. Tests were conducted on the morphology of this waste stream from two sorting plants. In line with the literature data and as part of the analytical work, the properties of the plastic waste stream designated for recycling and the energy properties of the post-recycling plastic mixture were estimated. Tests results showed that the calorific value of this mixture reached 31.8 MJ/kg, whereas, ash and chlorine content equaled 2.7% and 1.1% of dry mass, respectively. These parameters indicate that the mixture as a high-calorific fuel component may be a valuable addition to refuse-derived fuel (RDF) produced from the over-sieve fraction of municipal waste. Concurrently, as a result of the development of waste gasification technologies with a high share of electricity production in low-medium power range plants, it is possible to integrate them with plastic recycling and RMWP plants in the Polish national waste management system.
The article is a part of materials regarding current problems of Polish science and higher education. It provides an in-depth analysis of the Act on degrees and academic titles as well as several other laws which introduce the so-called Ph.D. implementation in Poland. These laws were adopted by the Sejm of the Republic of Poland in April 2017. The author focuses on several problems, discussing them in separate chapters. The article also tries to predict the far-reaching results of the new rules. At the same time, the author proposes specific solutions that should be included in the future in the Act on degrees and academic titles, or in the Act of industrial property. They should eliminate the negative effects of conflicts between the provisions of various legal acts.
The petrographic composition of coal has a significant impact on its technological and sorption properties. That composition is most frequently determined by means of microscope quantitative analyses. Thus, aside from the purely scientific aspect, such measurements have an important practical application in the industrial usage of coal, as well as in issues related to the safety in underground mining facilities. The article discusses research aiming at analyzing the usefulness of selected parameters of a digital image description in the process of automatic identification of macerals of the inertinite group using neural networks. The description of the investigated images was based on statistical parameters determined on the basis of a histogram and co-occurrence matrix (Haralick parameters). Each of the studied macerals was described by means of a 20-element feature vector. An analysis of its principal components (PCA) was conducted, along with establishing the relationship between the number of the applied components and the effectiveness of the MLP network. Based on that, the optimum number of input variables for the investigated classification task was chosen, which resulted in reduction of the size of the network’s hidden layer. As part of the discussed research, the authors also analyzed the process of classification of macerals of the inertinite group using an algorithm based on a group of MLP networks, where each network possessed one output. As a result, average recognition effectiveness of 80.9% was obtained for a single MLP network, and of 93.6% for a group of neural networks. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to use the proposed methodology as a tool supporting microscopic analyses of coal.
An emerging ultrasonic technology aims to control high-pressure industrial processes that use liquids at pressures up to 800 MPa. To control these processes it is necessary to know precisely physicochemical properties of the processed liquid (e.g., Camelina sativa oil) in the high-pressure range. In recent years, Camelina sativa oil gained a significant interest in food and biofuel industries. Unfortunately, only a very few data characterizing the high-pressure behavior of Camelina sativa oil is available. The aim of this paper is to investigate high pressure physicochemical properties of liquids on the example of Camelina sativa oil, using efficient ultrasonic techniques, i.e., speed of sound measurements supported by parallel measurements of density. It is worth noting that conventional low-pressure methods of measuring physicochemical properties of liquids fail at high pressures. The time of flight (TOF) between the two selected ultrasonic impulses was evaluated with a cross-correlation method. TOF measurements enabled for determination of the speed of sound with very high precision (of the order of picoseconds). Ultrasonic velocity and density measurements were performed for pressures 0.1–660 MPa, and temperatures 3–30XC. Isotherms of acoustic impedance Za, surface tension #27; and thermal conductivity k were subsequently evaluated. These physicochemical parameters of Camelina sativa oil are mainly influenced by changes in the pressure p, i.e., they increase about two times when the pressure increases from atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) to 660 MPa at 30XC. The results obtained in this study are novel and can be applied in food, and chemical industries.
The amount of waste from washing dolomite aggregates increases continuously. Aggregates are washed to remove clayey pollutants.They consist of a large amount of clay minerals and carbonates. Their properties and amount depends on the type of raw material and type of washing technology. Utilization of waste from washing aggregates is common problem and has not been sought out yet. Their usage as the raw material in ceramics might be environmentally friendly way to utilize them. This paper presents technological properties, phase composition and microstructure analysis of materials made of waste sludge from washing dolomite aggregates. Research was divided into three parts: technological properties analysis, phase composition analysis and microstructure analysis. Samples made of waste dolomite sludge were formed in laboratory clay brick vacuum extruder and fired at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. For final materials, apparent density, open porosity, water absorption, compressive strength and durability were examined. Results of technological research suggest the possibility of the application of the waste sludge from washing aggregates in building ceramics technology as bricks materials. Waste sludge from washing dolomite aggregates can be used as the main raw material of building ceramics masses. Without any additional technological operations (e.g. drying or grinding), the material with satisfactory properties was obtained. According to durability results all obtained materials can be used for masonry protected against water penetration and without contact with soil and ground water and also for masonry subjected to passive exposure (F0 – according to the standard EN 771-1).
The results of testing the strength properties of experimental ceramic materials containing spending moulding sand after initial mechanical reclamation as a material for subsequent layers of the stucco composition were presented. Tests were carried out on spent moulding sands from various foundry technologies, i.e. sand with furfuryl resin and sand with hydrated sodium silicate. The spent, agglomerated moulding sand has undergone a crushing process. Next, the required granular fractions used for individual layers of the stucco material were separated. Ceramic samples, in which the spent moulding sand was a substitute for fresh silica sand in successive layers of the stucco composition, were prepared. As a reference material, identical ceramic samples were used but with all layers made from the fresh silica sand. Samples prepared in this way were used to determine the bending strength of ceramic materials in the temperature range from 20 to 900ºC. The obtained values of the bending strength have demonstrated that spent moulding sand can be used in investment casting with no adverse effect on the strength of ceramic materials.