In this study, several variants create and choose of a local quasi-geoid model in Poland have been considered. All propositions have a source in European Gravimetric Geoid models – EGG2008 and EGG2015, which are purely gravimetric models of reference surface. In the course of this work, each model has been analyzed in various ways: without any corrections, by parallel shifting of residuals, by the 7-parameter conformal transformation and by fitting residuals by 4- and 5-parameter trigonometric polynomials. Eventual corrections were based on points of national GNSS/levelling networks (EUVN, EUVN_DA, POLREF, EUREF and ASG-EUPOS eccentric points). As a final result of this study, a comparison of the accuracy of selected models has been carried out by RMSE statistics and maps showing spatial distribution of residuals and histograms. Validation has shown that the maximum achievable accuracy of the EGG models is approximately 2 cm for the ETRF2000 reference system and approximately 8 cm for ETRF89. In turn, fitting with the use of different mathematical methods results in an improvement of the standard deviation of residues to the level of 1.3–1.4 cm. The conclusions include an evaluation of considerations for and against the use of models based only on EGG realizations and, on the other hand, fitted to the points of Polish vertical network. Its usefulness is strictly connected with needs of the definition of up to date quasi-geoid model for the new realization of heights system in Poland, based on EVRF2007 frame.
In this paper, two techniques for calculating the geoid-to-quasigeoid separation are employed. One of them is GPS/Levelling customary method as a criterion where the geoid undulation and height anomaly are computed by subtracting the ellipsoid height attained via GPS from the orthometric height and normal height, respectively. Another approach is Sjöberg’s equation. We have used of the ICGEM website for definition of the variables of the Sjöberg’s equation, as the applied reference model is the EGM2008 global geopotential model and WGS84 reference ellipsoid. The investigations are performed over the stations of the GPS/Leveling network related to three selected areas in desert, mountain and flatland namely the Lout, Zagros and Khuzestan in Iran and afterward the correlation coefficient between the geoid-to-quasigeoid separation calculated using the satellite data in Sjöberg’s equation and GPS/Levelling method is estimated. The results indicate a straight correlation between the estimated separations from the two methods as its value for the Lout is 0.754, for the Zagros is 0.497 and for the Khuzestan is 0.659. consequently, using the satellite data in Sjöberg’s equation for the regions where there are not the GPS/Levelling and land gravity data, specially for the even areas, yield a satisfactory response of the geoidto-quasigeoid separation.
The summary of research activities concerning gravity field modelling and gravimetric works performed in Poland in the period of 2011–2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on geoid modelling in Poland and other countries, evaluation of global geopotential models, determination of temporal variations of the gravity field with the use of data from satellite gravity space missions, absolute gravity surveys for the maintenance and modernization of the gravity control in Poland and overseas, metrological aspects in gravimetry, maintenance of gravimetric calibration baselines, and investigations of the non- tidal gravity changes. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.
The GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer) has significantly upgraded the knowledge on the Earth gravity field. In this contribution the accuracy of height anomalies determined from Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) based on approximately 27 months GOCE satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) data have been assessed over Poland using three sets of precise GNSS/levelling data. The fits of height anomalies obtained from 4th release GOCE-based GGMs to GNSS/levelling data were discussed and compared with the respective ones of 3rd release GOCE-based GGMs and the EGM08. Furthermore, two highly accurate gravimetric quasigeoid models were developed over the area of Poland using high resolution Faye gravity anomalies. In the first, the GOCE-based GGM was used as a reference geopotential model, and in the second – the EGM08. They were evaluated with GNSS/levelling data and their accuracy performance was assessed. The use of GOCE-based GGMs for recovering the long-wavelength gravity signal in gravimetric quasigeoid modelling was discussed.