The aim of the article is to diagnose the regional diversification of development in the axiological context. The starting point in this analysis is the term: development. This category is understood in a multidimensional manner. Presented in this paper conceptual model of development allows to distinguish three levels of analysis of the development process: material, social and cultural. Identification of the axiological phenomenon of the diversification of regional development in this research is ultimately served by the systematization tool – typology, introducing the division into the culture of honour, achievements and joy.
The goal of presented paper is to show growing importance of active public policy for socio-economic development of Polish regions. There is a description of general context of programming socio-economic development in Poland. After accession to EU in 2004 Poland developed set of programming documents on central level. Last document Responsible Development Strategy until 2030 was approved in 2017. In following part of that study there are presented issues of voivodeship development strategies and regional innovation strategies. Intraregional policy managed by self-governments in context of innovativeness is also tackled. In fi nal part conclusions and recommendations concerning regional policy are proposed.
Presented paper adresses issue of key research areas, which are important for development of backward regions in Poland. Proposed areas of priority research activities concentrates on: building resilience of regional structures on socio-economic crises; using megatrends impact on development paths; implementing public intervention generating economic growth; developing territorial keys for development; utilising capacity of cities, especially biggest; increasing quality of public management, strengthening of innovativeness and competitiveness of EU regions and cities; using better social and cultural dimension of socio-economic development; increasing potential of cross-border cooperation and using new development concepts, monitoring of socio-economic development through objective measuring of levels and paths. For Poland It is very important to use research activities to support process of closing gap with more affl uent EU regions.
The purpose of the chapter is to identify factors which had an impact on the change of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship development path as well as to indicate barriers limiting further development. The article is based on a desk research, statistical data analysis as well as structured in-depth interviews conducted with representatives of regional and local authorities, scientifi c units and business-related institutions. The conclusions may be of interest to both researchers of the path dependency concept, and representatives of institutions involved in formulation and implementation of regional policy.
The paper presents the history of the development path of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship. The aim of the study was to identify factors conducive to and restrict regional transformation in Warmia and Mazury and to verify the development path of the voivodeship. According to the study, the factors that positively infl uenced the development of the region in the recent period were, among others: EU funds and natural resources that form the basis of a regional economy. The factors that inhibit the development of the region include, among other:. lack of trust, intensifi cation of competition and low transport accessibility of the voivodeship.
Considering the increasing role of cities throughout the world and in Europe, the European Union regulations on cohesion policy that are binding in the 2014–2020 programme period have foreseen the need to introduce a separate intervention dedicated to cities and their functional areas. However, the implementation of these solutions did not come without certain problems. They referred both to the process of institutionalising co-operation and to the realisation of projects. Also in Poland, Integrated Territorial Investments have not gone beyond co-operation for the absorption of EU funding so far, which demonstrates doubtlessly that their potential still remains unexploited. Thus, a discussion on both the positive and negative aspects of the implementation of ITIs is necessary. Poland, as the largest beneficiary of the Cohesion Policy, has a wide experience, which might provide valuable information on that matter. The aim of the paper is to present these experiences and to provide conclusions for the regional policy.
In the heterogeneous economic space, big cities are development poles that are usually characterized by the best conditions for running a business and the highest level and living conditions. Their role in development processes is the subject of many discussions. On 23 October 2017, at the invitation of the Mayor of Cracow, J. Majchrowski, an external Plenary meeting of the Committee for Spatial Development of the Polish National Academy of Sciences was held in Cracow, the aim of which was to discuss the role of big cities in Poland›s socio-economic development. This article presents the author›s opinions in a synthetic way, presenting the most important issues raised by him during the panel on the importance of Polish metropolises in shaping the development potential of the country and the region. In addition to the fundamental terminological and problematic discussion, the article describes the experience of Poznań as an agglomeration signifi cantly aff ecting the development of the region, formulating in the summary recommendations referring to the practice of regional policy.
Rural areas have great potential, which properly supported can signifi cantly accelerate the socio-economic development of the country. However, the resources and values of individual areas are spatially diversifi ed, which means the diversity of development challenges and the necessity to diversify the instruments of local development policy as well as the territorialisation of development policy. The need to deal with development issues in connection with the development of urban functional areas and, more broadly, node regions, remains unchanged for all types of rural areas, which means the necessity of joint planning of spatial development, implementation of common development strategies of the entire functional area and pursuit of common socio-economic goals. The endogenous theory of local development remains valid, but it must be based on resources that go beyond the administrative boundaries of a single municipality. The need for network local development planning applies in particularly to peripheral rural areas, since rural municipalities often do not have sufficient economic potential to stay competitive even on a local scale. Only in partnership with other municipalities, within the framework of nodal regions, they can implement more eff ective competitive strategies. Another aspect of the network cooperation is the need to involve non-public entities into local economy. Establishing partnerships for the implementation of development goals may increase the chances of achieving a favourable competitive position and implementation of effective development strategies.
The paper indicates the signifi cance of the development policy territorialization for an enhancing competitiveness of cities and regions. The characteristics of such a policy allow revealing of the nature of territorial instruments. The authors, referring to their consulting practice and the research work done for the Ministry of Development, frame their recommendations. Those recommendations constitute the guidelines for amendment of territorial instruments in the context of National Regional Development Strategy actualization.
The contemporary world is marked by clear disproportions in terms of living, working and wage. This problem also applies to Poland, including the layout designated by cities. The quantitative analysis carried out proves that the identified disproportions in the development potential have a relatively permanent character, which gives them structural attribute. In this context, the desirable effectiveness of development policy (subordinate to the vision and funds of EU cohesion policy) becomes highly questionable. Today’s economic inclusion is a serious challenge to the failure of recognized development policies. The shaping of the socio-economic order of the state requires a new look at local development, starting from a reliable diagnosis, part of which is this study, to bold and real visions.
For a long time creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship have been at the heart of studies on economic growth of regions and cities. In the paper the three notions are scrutinised together to propose conceptual approach to establishing research and development pathways, based upon three-stage identification of: research problems, project patterns and relational mechanisms. The paper is concluded with a 63 Box – the approach helping to navigate throughout project preparation phase.
The paper presents the research concept and the key questions the team put forward during the implementation of the project entitled ‘Changing innovation processes models: a chance to break out of dependency paths for less developed regions’. In this chapter, research hypotheses, key concepts concerning the theory of path dependence, a review of the enablers and barriers in shaping development paths regarding the individual parts of the research project are indicated. There are also references to public policy proposals that can support the development of the peripheral paths of the peripheral regions as well as future research concepts of this issue.
The Reduction of Economic Dualism of Mazowieckie Voivodeship in 2007-2015 Using Regional Operation Programme for the Mazowieckie Voivodeship 2007-2013.The existence of social and economic dualism is widely discussed in numerous regions of Poland and Europe. This results from the natural structure of a region, which usually consists of one or two growth centres and peripheral areas. It leads to the emergence of inequalities, which cause a political pressure to redistribute income in order to ensure sustainable development. This discussion is particularly important in the Mazovian Voivodeship. Thus, the purpose of this study is to develop the existing findings concerning the social and economic dualism of the region. The main aim specified in the Voivodeship Development Strategy is to eliminate spatial inequalities. This paper is an attempt to broaden the knowledge on reducing the dualism in the voivodeship resulting from the implementation of the Regional Operational Programme for the Mazovian Voivodeship 2007-2013, which was one of the most crucial development tools. The analysis was conducted in terms of territory, sectors and the labour market.
‘Hard’ and ‘soft’ methods in analyses of territorial structures’. This article refers to two distinct approaches to investigations of territorial structures and their changes: the ‘intuitive’ of ‘soft’ approach and a more rigid, formalized or ‘hard’ one. The examples of analyzing the regional patterns in Poland over a almost 40 year span are called to illustrate these relations between two methodological standpoints. The conclusion states that both of them are valid and useful, however their strengths can be fully exposed when both are applied in an comprehensive way, supporting each other in a difficult process of investigation multidimensional and dynamic changes of the social territorial systems.
Urban regeneration is driven by many different engines. These engines, however, in some circumstances may appear to turn to either a success or failure factor. In this context, it is appropriate to analyse how factors that serve the regeneration process are affected by embedding research in a particular paradigm set by the theories of so called “regional development”. The choice of these concepts analysed in the article was the result of literature review. The article consists of four parts. The first part defines the development factors and shows how the concentration of negative phenomena in degraded areas may inhibit their optimal use in the context of the city as a whole. Two subsequent chapters analyse how major theories of regional development picture external and internal factors that influence the development of a specific territory. Then, in the summary the author discusses, how main urban and regional development theories reflect the rationale for mitigating barriers in using local development factors as real driving forces of urban regeneration.
In 1994-2000 Galicia region was among the weakest regions with a GDP per capita below the median of the European countries, that gained a strong increase in GDP in subsequent years. Thus, the aim of the article is to identify factors which had an impact on the change of Galicia’s development path as well as to indicate barriers limiting further development. The article is based on a desk research, statistical data analysis as well as structured in-depth interviews conducted with representatives of regional and local authorities, scientifi c units and business-related institutions. The findings show that there was no shock that could become a direct cause for a change in the innovation process model of Galicia. The success of the transformation could be seen in attracting automotive and shipbuilding industries decades ago and the creation of a strong knowledge base. The case study of Galicia shows that even with a diffi cult history and only a few pillars of the economy, it is possible to grow faster than other regions in Europe.
The study presents a change of innovation model in the highly developed region of the European Union Friuli Venezia Giulia in Italy. The paper presents the innovation system and the outline of the region’s economic history, as well as the factors that preceded the change in innovation model, the direct causes of the change, and the impact of institutional factors as well as the development barriers. The analyzes were based on interviews with 14 representatives of regional and local authorities, innovation and entrepreneurship support institutions, universities, R&D units and a cluster from the region, as well as statistical data and source material.
This chapter provides a quantitative analysis to identify weak regions that have changed the innovation model. The analysis was carried out at the beginning of the project, in 2015, when only data on GDP per capita for the EU regions was available until 2011. It was designed to identify regions that have changed the innovation model for their in-depth qualitative research, that is to prepare case studies. To indicate the development paths of European regions, a comparative analysis of means was prepared. Innovation models and their change were indicated by clusters analysis. In addition, an econometric analysis of growth factors in the EU regions covering data on GDP per capita in the EU regions in 2014 was carried out in 2017.
The study presents a change in the innovation model and a change of development path towards new industries and modernization of traditional industries in the Pomeranian Voivodship. The characteristics of the region and the characteristics of the regional innovation system based on statistical data, existing research, analysis and interviews with representatives of regional and local authorities, scientists and entrepreneurs of the voivodship were presented. The factors that preceded the change of the innovation model and direct causes of change were identifi ed aa well as the impact of institutional factors and the barriers to the development of the voivodship.
The subject of the study are strategies for the development of 9 cities, which are among the strongest centres outside the current capitals of regions (in Polish: voivodeships) in the least-developed Polish regions. These cities can give the chance to activate their surroundings. Good strategies that increase the competitiveness of cities and stimulate development can contribute to this. The aim of the research was to fi nd answers to the questions whether and to what extent the studied strategies: (1) are in line with the definition and methodology of strategic planning; (2) recognize and use specific combinations of developmental factors; (3) can contribute to the development of their surroundings. The research method involved the analysis of the strategic plans in the light of the above questions. The strategies studied are not fully in line with the strategy defi nition. They contain errors and methodological flaws commonly encountered in other strategies. They use the specificity of developmental factors, but without conscious, methodical recognition of their combinations and without exposing them. The author signals methodical problems specific to the strategic planning in territorial units and makes suggestions for planning practice.
Clusters belong to the regional innovation system, which led to the formulation and implementation of the cluster-based policy in many countries. The positive impact of clusters on the competitiveness of regions was confirmed by empirical studies. Absence of clusters means retardation in a regional development. The implementation of cluster policy supporting coopetition into the scope of principled regional policy assumptions seems urgent. In this way effective conditions for the formation of growth poles around industries specific for a given region will be developed and, consequently, the economic specialization of individual regions will be achieved. Observation of the benefits resulting from the functioning of clusters in the region, taking into account their possible negative impact, will allow to determine the specificity of regional development policy based on clusters. These problems indicated above are the subject of this study, based on the Polish and foreign literature available on the subject employing the desk research method.
During the last decades we observe growing importance of cities for socio-economic development, what concern especially larger cities. Currently patterns of socio-economic processes are very diff erent from those registered at the end of XX century. An important role in revival of cities played cohesion policy of European Union. Poland is an example of very well structured settlement system what could be used as an asset to avoid medium development trap for polish economy. In Poland issues of urban policy formulation are much better addressed in last generation of development strategies on central and regional levels.
The work assessed the diversity of the natural potential in communes of Szczecin Metropolitan Area with particular emphasis on the areas of natural and valuable nature, protected area, forests and green areas. Established links between natural resources of municipalities and their valorisation using the SWOT analysis method (included in development strategies) and planned development goals. The basic method of use of the natural potential of the municipality are: to improve the quality of life of residents and tourism development. The impact of the natural potential on the quality of life is noticed primarily by urban centres, where a large share of green areas is noticed. The commune with a dominant share of protected areas (include Natura 2000) draws attention to the development of tourism based on natural potential. This is particularly evident in the communities that are characterized by a favourable location in relation to watercourses and reservoirs (freshwater and marine). However, in the socio-economic development, the natural potential is used in both these directions: to improve the quality of life and the development of tourism. In local strategic documents, it can be noticed that the transport system based on bicycle, pedestrian and water routes related to the natural potential can be eff ectively used in building cooperation between the central and other municipalities associated in Szczecin Metropolitan Area.
The paper presents the author’s reflection regarding the recent transformations of the city of Krakow. The study is focused on the changes that are novelties or distinctive to the city. The conclusions indicate activities that should be treated by city authorities as challenges for the public management of the metropolitan scale.
The article contains new approach to creating future of cities and urban regions based on the concept of creative cities. The core of this approach is to treat the genetic code of development as a tool for creating future of the territorial units. The combination and synergy of development genes that were considered as creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship allows the use of the fundamental elements of strategic analysis. On one hand, these elements are future challenges of cities and urban regions that they face in the perspective of global trends; on the other hand, they are strategic capabilities of sectors inseparably linked with creativity – sectors of culture, science and business, the integration of which is based on cultural heritage of cities and urban regions. The next issue of the article is the description of the way genes of urban development are manifested in the four sectors. It allows to present the genetic code of development function as a generator of strategic capabilities of creative sectors in cities and urban regions. Finally, the ideas of cross-sectoral undertakings for Polish big cities and urban agglomerations that enable facing intellectual and strategic global challenges were presented. This takes place through the use of strategic capabilities based on the genes of creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship; in this way, the genetic code of the development of large cities and urban agglomerations served as the new prospective approach to creating their future.