The paper presents the results of assessment studies of the time course for technical wear in masonry buildings located in the area of mining-induced ground deformations. By using fuzzy inference system (FIS) and the “if-then” rule, corresponding language labels describing actual damage recorded in structure components were translated into scalar outputs describing the degree of damage to the building. Adopting this approach made it possible to separate damage resulting from additional effects coming from mining-induced ground deformations and the natural wear and tear of masonry structure. By using statistical analysis an exponential function for the condition of building damage and the function of natural wear and tear were developed. Both phenomena were subject to studies as a function of time regarding the technical age of building structure. The results obtained were used to develop a model for the course of technical wear of traditionally constructed buildings used within mining areas. In the course of natural wear and tear buildings located in mining areas are additionally exposed to forced ground deformations. The increase of internal forces in structure components induced by those effects results in creating an additional stress factor and damage. The hairline cracks and cracks of building structure components take place when the intensity value of mining effects becomes higher than the component stress resistance and repeated effects result in the decrease of structure rigidity. The observations of building behaviour in mining areas show that the intensity of mining activity and the multiplicity of its effect play a substantial role in the course of technical wear of buildings. The studies show that the level of damage resulting from mining effects adds up to natural wear and tear of the building and impairs the global technical condition as compared to similar buildings used outside mining areas.
Decision-making processes, including the ones related to ill-structured problems, are of considerable significance in the area of construction projects. Computer-aided inference under such conditions requires the employment of specific methods and tools (non-algorithmic ones), the best recognized and successfully used in practice represented by expert systems. The knowledge indispensable for such systems to perform inference is most frequently acquired directly from experts (through a dialogue: a domain expert - a knowledge engineer) and from various source documents. Little is known, however, about the possibility of automating knowledge acquisition in this area and as a result, in practice it is scarcely ever used. lt has to be noted that in numerous areas of management more and more attention is paid to the issue of acquiring knowledge from available data. What is known and successfully employed in the practice of aiding the decision-making is the different methods and tools. The paper attempts to select methods for knowledge discovery in data and presents possible ways of representing the acquired knowledge as well as sample tools (including programming ones), allowing for the use of this knowledge in the area under consideration.
The European Union is founded on a set of common principles of democracy, the rule of law, and fundamental rights, as enshrined in Article 2 of the Treaty on the European Union. Whereas future Member States are vetted for their compliance with these values before they accede to the Union, no similar method exists to supervise respect of these foundational principles after accession. This gap needs to be filled, since history proved that EU Member State governments’ adherence to foundational EU values cannot be taken for granted. Against this background this article assesses the need and possibilities for the establishment of an EU Scoreboard on EU values; viable strategies and procedures to regularly monitor all Member States’ compliance with the rule of law on an equal and objective basis; and the nature of effective and dissuasive sanction mechanisms foreseen for rule of law violators.
This article looks at the record of the activities of Poland’s Women’s League, first registered in 1945 under the name Social and Civic League of Women, presented in its two magazines, Kobieta Dzisiejsza [Today’s Woman] and Kobieta [Woman] published in 1946–1947 and 1947–1949 respectively. Their approach and choice of stories were to demonstrate the new organization’s concern with the lives of their readers. The magazines offered advice on how to cope with problems of everyday life, both at home and in the workplace. The broad range of themes was intended to appeal to a broad audience from all walks of life, including those that were not members of the new organization.
We present a new hash function based on irregularly decimated chaotic map, in this article. The hash algorithm called SHAH is based on two Tinkerbell maps filtered with irregular decimation rule. We evaluated the novel function using distribution analysis, sensitivity analysis, static analysis of diffusion, static analysis of confusion, and collision analysis. The experimental data show that SHAH satisfied valuable level of computer security.
This article aims to investigate the phenomenon of the rule of law promotion exercised by the EU through the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements (DCFTAs). First, the article emphasizes the unique combination of normative and market power the EU uses to diffuse its norms through trade liberalization. Next, it provides an insight into the particularities of the European Neighbourhood Policy as a policy context for the conclusion and implementation of the Association Agreements, including the DCFTAs with Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia, as well as the conceptual problematic and scope of the rule of law as a value the EU seeks to externalize. Using the DCFTAs with Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia) as a single group case study of the transparency dimension of the rule of law, the central part of the article analyzes the DCFTAs substantive requirements, directed toward promoting transparency in the partner states (while categorizing the requirements into the most general ones; cooperation-related; and discipline-specific) and the legal mechanisms that make these clauses operational (e.g., the institutional framework of the AAs, gradual approximation and monitoring clauses, and the Dispute Settlement Mechanism). In concluding, the article summarizes the state-of-the-art of the rule of law promotion through the DCFTAs, distinguishes the major challenges the respective phenomenon faces, and emphasizes the prospects for and difficulties of using the DCFTAs as an instrument of rule of law promotion.
There may be circumstances where academic degrees or the title of professor are obtained deceitfully, i.e. in breach of copyrights or moral principles in science. Dishonesty in scientific research constitutes gross misconduct because it is executed in order to appropriate ideas, findings, collocations and theses of others, without accurate citation of the source. It also entails infringement of intellectual property rights. Scientific misconduct in ethical and legal aspect is explicit. It disqualifies the offender as a scientist. The unlawful act of obtaining an academic degree (Ph.D.) or the title of professor in such a deceitful manner, irrespective of how much time has passed, shall not make the resumption condition fall under the statute of limitations. Thus, it enables the reopening of procedures to deprive the person who deceitfully obtained an academic degree or title of this degree or title.
This article analyses the amendments of January 2018 to the Act on the Institute of National Remembrance (INR) of 1998, which has raised doubts in light of in ternational law and provoked diplomatic tensions between Poland on one side and Germany, Ukraine, United States of America and Israel on the other. The INR is a national in stitution whose role is, among others, to prosecute perpetrators of in ternational crimes committed between 1917-1990. The article proves that the wording of the amendments is in consistent with in ternational law, as it ignores the principles of in ternational responsibility, definitions of in ternational crimes, and disproportionately limits freedom of expression. In consequence, it cannot be expected that third states will cooperate with Poland in the execution of responsibility for violation of the newly adopted norms.
The paper presents Gupta's relational decomposition technique expanded on linguistic level. It allows to reduce the hardware cost of the fuzzy system or the computing time of the final result, especially when referring to First Aggregation Then Inference (FATI) relational systems or First Inference Then Aggregation (FITA) rule systems. The inference result of the hierarchical system using decomposition technique is more fuzzy than of the classical system. The paper describes a linguistic decomposition technique based on partitioning the knowledge base of the fuzzy inference system. It allows to decrease or even totally remove a redundant fuzziness of the inference result.
There were two aims of the research. One was to enable more or less automatic confirmation of the known associations – either quantitative or qualitative – between technological data and selected properties of concrete materials. Even more important is the second aim – demonstration of expected possibility of automatic identification of new such relationships, not yet recognized by civil engineers. The relationships are to be obtained by methods of Artificial Intelligence, (AI), and are to be based on actual results from experiments on concrete materials. The reason of applying the AI tools is that in Civil Engineering the real data are typically non perfect, complex, fuzzy, often with missing details, which means that their analysis in a traditional way, by building empirical models, is hardly possible or at least can not be done quickly. The main idea of the proposed approach was to combine application of different AI methods in a one system, aimed at estimation, prediction, design and/or optimization of composite materials. The paradigm of the approach is that the unknown rules concerning the properties of concrete are hidden in experimental results and can be obtained from the analysis of examples. Different AI techniques like artificial neural networks, machine learning and certain techniques related to statistics were applied. The data for the analysis originated from direct observations and from reports and publications on concrete technology. Among others it has been demonstrated that by combining different AI methods it is possible to improve the quality of the data, (e.g. when encountering outliers and missing values or in clustering problems), so that the whole data processing system will be giving better prediction, (when applying ANNs), or the newly discovered rules will be more effective, (e.g. with descriptions more complete and – at the same time – possibly more consistent, in case of ML algorithms).
The objective of studies presented in this publication was structuring of research knowledge about the ADI functional properties and changes in these properties due to material treatment. The results obtained were an outcome of research on the selection of a format of knowledge representation that would be useful in further work aiming at the design, application and implementation of an effective system supporting the decisions of a technologist concerning the choice of a suitable material (ADI in this case) and appropriate treatment process (if necessary). ALSV(FD) logic allows easy modelling of knowledge, which should let addressees of the target system carry out knowledge modelling by themselves. The expressiveness of ALSV (FD) logic allows recording the values of attributes from the scope of the modelled domain regarding ADI, which is undoubtedly an advantage in the context of further use of the logic. Yet, although the logic by itself does not allow creating the rules of knowledge, it may form a basis for the XTT format that is rule-based notation. The difficulty in the use of XTT format for knowledge modelling is acceptable, but formalism is not suitable for the discovery of rules, and therefore the knowledge of technologist is required to determine the impact of process parameters on values that are functional properties of ADI. The characteristics of ALSV(FD) logic and XTT formalism, described in this article, cover the most important aspects of a broadly discussed, full evaluation of the applicability of these solutions in the construction of a system supporting the decisions of a technologist.
Ukraine, upon giving up the nuclear arsenal left on its territory by the USSR, entered in 1994 into a Memorandum on Security Assurances with the United Kingdom, United States and Russian Federation (Budapest Memorandum). Since the crisis began between the Russian Federation and Ukraine in February 2014, a number of States have invoked the Budapest Memorandum. Unclear, however, is whether this instrument constituted legal obligations among its Parties or, instead, is a political declaration having no legal effect. The distinction between political instruments and legal instruments is a recurring question in inter-State relations and claims practice. The present article considers the Budapest Memorandum in light of the question of general legal interest – namely, how do we distinguish between the legal and the political instrument?