Parental participation in co-management of state school becomes a key issue for democratization of public life in poland and for the quality and effectiveness of civic education of the young. The system of education needs social control, first of all of those whose children are subjected to school duty. “Such will the Republics of poland be as their youth is educated” is the thesis forming the foundations of the school system in the 3rd Republic of Poland. In compliance with the postulates and ethics of Solidarity, the system was supposed to be self-governing. What is analyzed in this study is the relation between politics and school education in the normative-empirical dimension. The (so far unpublished) research results of the author's own studies on democratization of state education are popularized here. This is done, after the dispute on some studies diagnosing the nationwide lack of socialization, in order to indicate subsequent aspects of fiction and appearances of the central authority, the rule of safe position employment, common paralysis of parental care, as well as natural expectations and aspirations which should be fulfilled by the subjects running state schools.
The author’s aim was to present actual conditions of rural primary schools functioning and the spatial differentiation of their network reorganization with particular emphasis on the consequences of those schools liquidation change their a governing body other from the local government units (LGU) to local community organizators. The study was focused on rural areas of the Małopolskie Voivodship over 2000–2016 period. In the paper were presented the number of pupils and schools (open and closed) and the school governing bodies structure too. Those data, obtained by the author from the Local Data Banks and the Board of Education in Cracow and were presented for each statistical locality. A population and settlement concentration in many rural areas made costs of schools maintenance higher and higher. Thus school governing bodies faced a difficult decision – either to reorganize the actual school network or to spend more on education from the municipal budget. Most complicated structures is observed in the rural areas showing depopulation and dispersed settlement, the zones of traditional agricultural. In all rural areas of the Małopolskie Voivodship, the number of pupils in primary schools during the analysed period decreased nearly by 30%. Thus 118 small rural schools were closed i.e. in the county Miechów, of 43 schools remained only 21. The number of closed schools would be much higher without a activity of the local communities, which began to take over their schools from the LGU. Within rural areas the Małopolskie Voivodship in 2016, 123 schools were run by local organization i.e. over 11,5% of all the rural primary schools.
The article deals with the issue of the meaning of the Polish early education coursebooks for conservation/change in educational practices. It is the liberal and constructivist discourse to which the coursebook authors should refer (especially in the context of the present time and democracy) if these books are to become a tool of the prodevelopmental and emancipatory interest of both students and society. However, the research on Polish coursebooks for early education (grades I – III), show that this very condition has not been ful3 lled. In such a situation it is the German school coursebooks that might be inspiring because of their discursive background as well as of the methodological proposals and the range of content present in them. The article is also an attempt to reconstruct “the image of school” present in German early education coursebooks. It is possible to name and describe the key dimensions in this image such as: the democratic nature of teacher-student relations, the focus on the activation of students’ personal knowledge as well as on their ethical and cognitive autonomy, realistic vision of the world, trust in students’ competences, and creating the sphere of the nearest development.
What is focused on in the undertaken study are teachers from schools educating in the Polish language in the Czech Republic. The author refers to the studies conducted in 2014–2016 and in 2017 among teachers from schools for the Polish national minority located in Zaolzie. These schools effectively compete with schools for the Czech majority. Among other things, they have survived owing to teachers and their decisive strategies, which involve not only strictly competitive but also various forms of collaborative behaviour.
Article presents results of research concerning condition of school pedagogy as a subdiscipline. Study was performed by Zespół Zadaniowy Pedagogiki szkolnej under the auspices of PAN. The condition of subdiscipline was described as: presence of formal entities of school pedagogy in universities, academic and didactic activity on subject school pedagogy. Quantitative and qualitative description underlies to preliminary findings concerning condition of school pedagogy.
In the definition of civic competences which is situated in the Annex to Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 Decem-ber 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning – Key Competences for Life-long Learning – a European Reference Framework it is written: “Full respect for human rights including equality as a basis for democracy, appreciation and understanding of differences between value systems of different religious or ethnic groups lay the foundations for a positive attitude”. Therefore, the question is: Does school education in general premise developing attitudes based on val-ues essential to democracy? The answers to this question can be searched con-ducting various studies. The paper presents the results of analysis of the core curricula conducted by a team of researchers from the Department of School Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (Poland). Why core curricula have become the object of our research? Basically, for two reasons. Firstly, the school has obligated to implement them, and all school programs and textbooks have to be consistent with them. Second-ly, they are also a kind of articulation and a declaration of competence required from people in the given place and time.
Good quality communication in the family is a source of positive relations among its members. It is the most important characteristic of a well-functioning family. Very interesting perceptions of communication in the family are held by high achieving students. In those young people, communication in the family correlates negatively with their high grade point average. Also, they evaluate positively communication in the family as a whole but less positively one-to-one verbal interactions with the mother and the father. This observation is explained by the fact that the family forms a system. Moreover, communication is associated with positive relationships and attitudes such as acceptance and autonomy, but correlates negatively with control, over-demanding behaviour, and inconsistency in the parents of high achieving students.
Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences and Faculty of Medical Sciences starting from December 2012, launched joint study in order to investigate personal noise exposure and associated health effects in general school teachers population, starting from kindergartens up to high schools in Stip, Macedonia. In order to determine workplace associated noise exposure and associated health effects in this specific profession, a full shift noise exposure of 40 teachers from 1 kindergarten, 2 primary and 2 high schools were measured in real conditions using noise dosimeters. A-weighted equivalent-continuous sound pressure levels (LAeq) of each teacher were recorded during single activities (classes). Normalized 8-hours exposure, termed the noise exposure level (Lex;8 h) was also computed. Daily noise dose is another descriptor for noise exposure that was determined as a measure of the total sound energy to which workers have been exposed, as a result of working in the varying noise levels. Health effects were assessed trough a full scale epidemiological study which included 231 teachers from the same schools. Specific questionnaire was used to extract information about subject’s perception on occupational noise exposure, as well as theirs occupational and medical history.
The article describes the relationship between the local community and the primary school considered as “place” within the meaning derived from the book by yi-Fu Tuan “Space and place: The perspective of experience”. The article compares the cases of two schools in the city of bielsko-biała (the city has a population of 175 thousands inhabitants). One school is overcrowded, yet its future existence has been secured. The second school, however, was first transferred to another location and it eventually went into liquidation in 2012. The article demonstrates then underlying reasons and consequences of losing the school as place. Moreover, it indicates potential problems emerging in such cases altogether with a set of possible solutions.
This paper explores the issue of the value-based life and upbringing towards the values on the grounds of legal conditions in which the Polish educational system exists. Multiple standards are imposed on educational space and law, including especially education law, has been subject to major inflation, therefore, at the moment law is becoming one of the crucial factors that determine the structure and function of all subjects and institutions of education. Law not only determines the formal context of the system wit hin which education occurs but also influences organizational aspects of ongoing educational activities as well as individual areas of experiencing and learning both the school and the law. As a consequence, the law is able to and should support the process of leading students towards the value-based life. All the subjects and institutions of education as well as authorities decisive in terms of education should put and effort in searching for a knowledge on a good law and make establishment of such law a basic concern and task. Good law can lead to a value-based life or constitute a measure of the protection of values that are promoted and implemented within the educational system. Depriving school of humanity is also reflected in the legal sphere – a chaos that occurs in the educational reality under the influence of continuous amendments to the education law. This paper is aimed at considering the state and structure of the current law on the protection of values in education.
This is the article about political issues in education. The aim of the text is to present the relations between politics and education. I try to find answer to question: what is the essence of politics of education? I claim that education is inherently political. Every dimension and form of educational practice are politically contested spaces. I try to show that politics in education is a very important part of democracy in education. Democracy is impossible without politics and politics is impossible without democracy. So, I focus on describing possible political areas in education. The paper presents results of these relations. I also try to convince the reader that it is possible (it is necessary) to create important, interesting thinking about education from political point of view.
An important task for present and future generations is the protection of the national cultural resources. The most attractive architectural objects of historic value include palaces, manors, castles and monasteries. Less attention is paid to educational areas, which apart from the main educational and didactic goal (positive influence on the young person's mind, shaping his personality, social integration) have a great influence on his health, the quality of his life and the shape of his environment. The example of this is the park next to the school complex in Sobieszyn, located in Lublin Voivodeship, Ułęż County. The school complex with its surrounding park established at the end of the 19 th century was given by a will of the Count Kajetan Kanty Kicki, Gozdawa coat of arms, a philantropist and a contemporary owner of Sobieszyn. Localisation of the school, far away from the centre of the village, on the slope of one of the right side tributaries of the Wieprz River – Świnka, makes it an extraordinary place, emphasising the nature values that surround it. Nowadays, the building is still a school- Kajetan Kicki Agriculture School in Sobieszyn.
The assessment of teachers' exposure to noise in primary schools was carried out on the basis of: questionnaire studies (covering 187 teachers in 3 schools), noise measurements at the teachers' workplaces, measurements of the school rooms acoustic properties (reverberation time and speech transmission index STI in 72 classrooms), analysis of statistical data regarding hazards and occupational diseases in the education sector. The studies have shown that noise is the main factor of annoyance in the school environment. Over 50% of questioned teachers consider noise as annoying and near 40% as very annoying or unbearable. A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure levels measured in classrooms, teacher rooms and common rooms are in the range of 58-80 dB and they exceed 55 dB (criteria of noise annoyance). The most frequently reported subjective feelings and complaints (over 90%) are: growth of psychical and emotional tension, irritation, difficulties in concentrating, hoarseness, cough. Noise in schools is also a harmful factor. High A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure levels ranging from 80 to 85 dB, measured in corridors during pauses and in sports halls, can cause the risk of hearing damage among PE teachers and persons oversensitive to noise. The latter concerns both teachers and pupils. High background noise levels (55-65 dB) force teachers to raise their voice. It can lead to the development of an occupational disease - chronic voice disorders due to excessive vocal effort lasting for at least 15 years. In the education sector 785 new cases of this disease were reported only in 2008. Poor acoustics in classrooms (reverberation time ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 s, STI < 0.6 in 50% of classrooms) have an adverse influence on speech reception and make the teaching and learning processes difficult.
The article presents results of our own research regarding acoustic properties of 110 classrooms in five typical primary schools in Warsaw. The target of the research was to assess the classrooms using established criteria. These criteria include the reverberation time and the speech transmission index. The research has shown a large diversity of acoustic properties of classrooms within each of the schools and between the schools, resulting from the classroom equipment and the school building construction. In addition, the assessment has indicated that classrooms in schools researched do not meet the established acoustic criteria (reverberation time and speech transmission index). Because the classroom equipment is different for younger forms (integrated teaching) and for older forms (subject teaching), the results have been analyzed separately for rooms for younger forms (0-III) and for rooms for older forms (IV-VI). Synthetic results prove the advisability of such division. Correlation analysis has been conducted for the speech transmission index STI and reverberation time Tmf, as well as for the speech transmission index STI and the suggested reverberation time Twf defined in a similar manner as Tmf, but in a wider frequency range. The correlation between the speech transmission index STI and Twf is higher than that between the STI index and Tmf. The reverberation time Twf can therefore be used for a more precise assessment of acoustic properties of interiors with regard to verbal communication than Tmf. In addition, the paper presents estimated analysis results of the influence of selected classroom equipment (carpets) on its acoustic properties.
The public character of school has recently been called into question more often. I examine the question given in the title in terms of three different aspects (juridical, institutional and performative), each of which is linked with a number of disturbing transformations of public schools (privatization of that which is public, re-feudalization, and commodification of education). By virtue of such an analysis and with reference to research on the essence of what is public, I make an attempt to formulate the key meanings of the public character of school.
Contemporary school is exposed to a number of tensions and conflicts arising from the difference in expectations of everyday interactions. in particular, this can manifest itself in difficult situations for which shall be the student's social maladjustment or a threat to social maladjustment, because the multiplicity of involved actors can express different beliefs about the same substance and procedure changes desired and their effectiveness. The solution thus understood the conflict of expectations may be an institutional alliance, instead too far-reaching assumptions about the collaboration.
Expectations are understood as more or less justified beliefs about the future and relate external to us states of affairs (state expectations), ourselves (selfexpectations) or others (interpersonal expectations). in this article are presented state expectations and interpersonal expectations emerging from the process of education student with a disability. This article is based on focus research conducted among teachers and interviews with the head teachers of schools where students with disabilities are taught. The purpose of the article is to show expectations according to exchange theory and finding common and divergent benefit exchange planes between the different actors of the educational process. It turned out that very few of them are the same for all actors. Most of them are assigned to a lesser or greater degree of individual operators. The most important conclusion is the fact that the state implementing educational policy (inclusive) very often dumps the responsibility for the implementation of this policy on local governments, who saw the "economic attractiveness" of student with a disability the chance to see a budget increase and no longer necessarily increase educational opportunities for their students with disabilities.
The aim of this article is to present circumstances of South american schools functioning in disadvantaged societies on the examples of brazil and peru. Those local societies have been struggling with social and educational poverty, illiteracy, ethnic conflicts, pressures connected with gangs’ activities, etc. in many cases they try to solve their problems on the basis of school which is the center of social activity. These issues are little known in poland and only from literature and journalistic writing what has created their stereotyped image. Meanwhile, you cannot overestimate pedagogical implications of this phenomenon. The expectations of South american local societies are in many cases not the same as the expectations of school defined by creators and administrators of the education system. Pressures and conflicts usually are caused by discrepancy between the activities of the central institutions and the needs (expectations) of different ethnic groups, clans, families and individuals. Students speaking dialects or the languages of ethnic minorities, normally experiencing domestic violence and forced to work on the border of law, are regarded by the education system as the others/aliens. in such a situation the assistance comes from volunteers and professional educators working for non-governmental organizations. Many of them refer to the ideas taken from Freire’s ‘pedagogy of the oppressed’. he was convinced that a man will never be free alone and his hope of freedom lies in education realized in cooperation with the others. The condition of liberating the oppressed individuals and groups from treating themselves as inferior, powerless, dependent on the others’ support ( which is typical for disadvantaged communities) is, according to paulo Freire, obtaining a new level of awareness through, among others, participating in educational projects based on the idea of social dialogue and creating the feeling of independence, elf-responsibility and co-responsibility for their own community. In reflection, which is the basis of the above article, i am trying to answer the following question: in what circumstances a school can be a place of social dialogue and fulfilment of basic expectations of disadvantaged communities members? i assume that even in such exotic societies as Latin american countries you can find a lot of inspiration for solving problems similar to those encountered in poland.
Educational policy is a complex social phenomenon which both determines and is determined by political, socio-cultural, economic or demographic conditions. It is treated as deliberate activities of state and local authorities strictly related to educational practice. Therefore, each educational policy should be a planned activity which is based on a broader programme and which takes into account developmental strategies not only of education but also of the region or state. The period following the system transformation in Poland has involved numerous activities which – from teachers' perspective – have been treated as unexpected or even threatening their professional situation or the whole education. however, J. Rutkowiak emphasizes that relations between politics and pedagogy result from social engagement of both educationalists and teachers in politics and, thus, it is indispensable to treat politics as a dimension of their daily functioning at work . The following questions are raised: what are actual teachers' expectations from politicians and the educational policy? how do teachers assess the educational policy and situate it in their professional daily routine? Referring to Rutkowiak, is this policy a significant dimension of their daily functioning at work or a factor of unpredictable results which may appear at any time – the expected unexpected as the title suggests? what is presented in this study are some analyses of the data collected in the studies on educational policy and politicians, conducted among teachers in 2000–2014.
In this text, a critical reflection is presented on assessment practices in early childhood education, which are discussed in the context of the creation by those practices of the students’ sense of agency which, according to J. Bruner, is treated as a category of school culture. The discussion is based on the results of the recent research conducted in Poland on students’ agency and an analysis of the data collected as part of the author’s own research. The picture obtained by using the triangulation of methods and sources confirms that assessment in early childhood education strips children of the opportunity to build a sense of agency, even in terms of independent control of a task situation. The surveyed students, admittedly, are capable of a relatively independent reflection on the context of school assessment, but the world of their educational experience is limited to the incapacitating culture of the school grade. It is a culture that becomes one of the sources of children’s self-restraint in the perception of themselves as agents, perpetuating their external steerability and passivity. To change this situation, external regulations will not suffice, but only the organizing of the learning environment based on the relationship between the teacher and the student, which is free from the daily pressures of assessment and the worship of formal correctness.
Positivism is a family of philosophical views characterized by a highly favorable account of science. The characteristic theses of positivism are that science is the only valid knowledge and that philosophy does not possess a method different from science (scientism). Positivists attempted to eliminate all metaphysical components in the area of philosophy. Wolniewicz was one of the most original Polish analytical philosophers of second part of 20th century and he was a strong opponent of anti-metaphysical tendencies. The author discusses the problem of the relationship between science and philosophy and presents Wolniewicz’s arguments against positivism and scientism.
Shaping a space shouldn’t be an endless expansion of the built environemnt. New districts and new cities should be more than collections of houses, quickly produced and placed without any overarching concept. They should present streets, squares, axes, directions, as features of the area's composition. An ordered space is a sign of true modernity.
The article presents the main themes of the philosophy of Max Horkheimer, a representative of the Frankfurt School, starting from their social theory, with close affinities to the ideas of Karl Marx, up to the concept of transcendence and eschatological longings, which seem to be close to the views of Arthur Schopenhauer.
Over the past few years, a great deal of research has been conducted concerning the mathematical skills of children after the first stage of education. In my report, I present a selection of results from this research in order to illustrate the most typical didactical effects of the style in which mathematical education is performed in our schools. Comparing some detailed results from research in a number of chosen fields, I also try to assess whether or not, and how, the level of schoolchildren’s skills has changed in the recent years.