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Abstract

The properties of the nonlinear phenomenon in water, including sea water, have been well known for many decades. The feature of the non homogeneous distribution of the speed of sound along the depth of the sea is very interesting from the physical and technical point of view. It is important especially in the observation of underwater area by means of acoustical method (Grelowska et al., 2013; 2014). The observation of the underwater space has been carried out for more than hundred years. In the second half of the twentieth century we observed very intense trend of development of the measuring methods of underwater sound speed. It was done mainly in the linear sound propagation aspect. At the end of 20th century nonlinear devices were invented. Thus, from this point of view, knowledge on the nonlinear properties of the sea water is the matter of interest. The phenomenon of nonlinear distortion of elastic waves, and the same the efficiency of nonlinear transfer of energy from the primary wave to the higher harmonic components depend on properties of the medium, especially on the material constant known as the nonlinearity parameter B/A. The Baltic Sea is a specific reservoir with untypically low salinity and low depth (Grelowska, 2000). In the paper results of investigation of nonlinear properties of the South and the Central Baltic by means of thermodynamic method are presented.
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Abstract

The scattering of plane steady-state sound waves from a viscous fluid-filled thin cylindrical shell weak- ened by a long linear slit and submerged in an ideal fluid is studied. For the description of vibrations of elastic objects the Kirchhoff-Love shell-theory approximation is used. An exact solution of this problem is obtained in the form of series with cylindrical harmonics. The numerical analysis is carried out for a steel shell filled with oil and immersed in seawater. The modules and phases of the scattering amplitudes versus the dimensionless wavenumber of the incident sound wave as well as directivity patterns of the scattered field are investigated taking into consideration the orientation of the slit on the elastic shell surface. The plots obtained show a considerable influence of the slit and viscous fluid filler on the diffraction process.
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Abstract

A laboratory study was performed to study the effects of various operating factors, viz. adsorbent dose, contact time, solution pH, stirring speed, initial concentration and temperature on the adsorption of triphenyltin chloride (TPT) onto coal fly ash supported nZnO (CFAZ). The adsorption capacity increases with increase in the adsorbent amount, contact time, pH, stirring speed and initial TPT concentration, and decrease with increase in the solution temperature. The adsorption data have been analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption models to determine the mechanistic parameters associated with the adsorption process while the kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, Elovich, fractional power and intraparticle diffusivity kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters of the process were also determined. The results of this study show that 0.5 g of CFAZ was able to remove up to 99.60% of TPT from contaminated natural seawater at 60 min contact time, stirring speed of 200 rpm and at a pH of 8. It was also found that the equilibrium and kinetic data fitted better to Freundlich and pseudo second-order models, respectively. It can therefore be concluded that CFAZ can be effectively used for shipyard process wastewater treatment
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