The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion – the intergranular one – occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.
In general, uniform mixing of particles is desirable in the process of particle handling. However, during the charging of sinter feed and upper ore, size segregation must be induced to prevent heat imbalance, ensure bed permeability, and prevent the loss of fine ore. In this study, upper ore charging was simulated using a discrete element method (DEM) to find the optimal method for controlling particle size segregation, and the segregation characteristics in the upper ore bed were investigated when a deflector plate was applied to the charging machine. The degree of vertical segregation increased when a deflector plate was applied, and it was confirmed that the segregation direction in the upper ore bed can be controlled by adjusting the charging direction of the upper ore by using a deflector plate. In order to apply this method directly to the actual process, further study is needed to understand the influence of the characteristics of the deflector plate such as length and angle.
The paper presents the possibility of application of the developed computer script which allows the assessment of non-equilibrium solidification of binary alloys in the ThermoCalc program. The script makes use of databases and calculation procedures of the POLY-3 module. A solidification model including diffusion in the solid state, developed by Wołczyński, is used to describe the non-equilibrium solidification. The model takes into account the influence of the degree of solute segregation on the solidification process by applying the so-called back-diffusion parameter. The core of the script is the iteration procedure with implemented model equation. The possibility of application of the presented calculation method is illustrated on the example of the Cr-30% Ni alloy. Computer simulations carried out with use of the developed script allow to determine the influence of the back-diffusion parameter on the course of solidification curves, solidus temperature, phase composition of the alloy and the fraction of each phase after the solidification completion, the profile of solute concentration in liquid during solidification process, the average solute concentration in solid phase at the eutectic temperature and many other quantities which are usually calculated in the ThermoCalc program.
The article presents the results of investigations performed on segregation of elements in the billets. The research were performed under standard industrial conditions, during high carbon steel production cycle. Probes (templates with the thickness of 20 mm) were taken from billets with square cross-section of 160 mm. Segregation of elements was determined based on the quantitative analysis of results performed by using spark spectrometry pursuant to PN-H-04045. Changes in concentrations of elements were analysed along two cross-sections. Element contents were performed at points distanced from each other by approx. 10 mm. The segregation of carbon, sulphur and phosphorus was determined for different billets.
Experimental observations of the steel morphology as well as measurements of the solutes concentration in the macro-scale were made on the basis of the vertical cut at the mid-depth of the 15-tons steel forging ingot serially produced in one of the steel plant in Poland. Experimental observations of the morphology accompanied by the measurements of the Peclet Number were also made on the cross-section of the continuously cast brass ingots serially produced in the copper / brass industry in Poland. The performed measurements allowed to work out some maps of the alloying elements segregation for the longitudinal section of the steel static ingot and a Growth Law for the columnar grains formation in the brass ingots. The marginal stability criterion has been applied to the last mentioned development / description. Some suggestions for the micro-segregation measurement mode in the columnar structure are derived.
The issue of auditory segregation of simultaneous sound sources has been addressed in speech research but was given less attention in musical acoustics. In perception of concurrent speech, or speech with noise, the operation of time-frequency masking was often used as a research tool. In this work, an ex- tension of time-frequency masking, leading to the removal of spectro-temporal overlap between sound sources, was applied to musical instruments playing together. The perception of the original mixture was compared with the perception of the same mixture with all spectral overlap electronically removed. Ex- periments differed in the method of listening (headphones or a loudspeaker), sets of instruments mixed, and populations of participants. The main findings were: (i) in one of the experimental conditions the removal of spectro-temporal overlap was imperceptible, (ii) perception of the effect increased when removal of spectro-temporal overlap was performed in larger time-frequency regions rather than in small ones, (iii) perception of the effect decreased in loudspeaker listening. The results support both the multiple looks hypothesis and the “glimpsing” hypothesis known from speech perception.
In this paper, the effect of changes the parameters of heat treatment on the structure and the degree of elements segregation was determined, in the context of corrosion resistance of ductile iron Ni-Mn-Cu, containing 7.2% Ni, 2.6% Mn and 2.4% Cu. In the condition after casting, castings of austenitic matrix and 160HBW hardness were obtained. The achieved castings were soaked at 450, 550 and 650°C for 4, 8 and 12 hours, then cooled down at the ambient air. In most cases, the heat treatment resulted in a change in the castings matrix, had the consequence of increasing their hardness in comparison to raw castings. Increasing the temperature and prolonging soaking time resulted in increasing the degree of transformation of austenite, while reducing the degree of elements segregation. This led to the formation of slightly bigger number of pitting due to corrosion, but not so deep and more evenly distributed in comparison to raw castings. Wherein the results of corrosion tests show that heat treatment of castings did not significantly change their corrosion resistance in comparison to raw castings, in contrast to the significant increase in mechanical properties.
In the course of homogenizing annealing of aluminium alloys being cast continually or semi-continually it appears that chemical inhomogenity takes off within separate dendritic cells (crystal segregation). It is about a diffusion process that takes place at the temperature which approaches the liquid temperature of the material. In that process the transition of soluble intermetallic compounds and eutectic to solid solution occurs and it suppresses crystal segregation significantly . The temperature, homogenization time, the size of dendritic cells and diffusion length influences homogenizing process. The article explores the optimization of homogenizing process in terms of its time and homogenizing annealing temperature which influence mechanical properties of AlZn5,5Mg2,5Cu1,5 alloy.