Research on participation of social media users has contributed to our understanding of modern citizenship, civic engagement, and contemporary public sphere. Despite a growing interest in participatory practices in social media little is known about the factors affecting political participation of social media users. Based on an online survey of 700 social media users in Poland, this study examines the relationship between social capital (defined at the individual level as a resource embedded in personal networks) and political participation. It has been established that there is a contradictory relationship between social capital and participatory activities of social media users. Apparently, differences between the resources that are only embedded in personal networks on the one hand, and those that can be mobilized for purposive actions on the other, matter when association between social capital and political participation is considered. Moreover, the presence of these resources significantly varies across different types of social relations (family, friends and acquaintances) of respondents engaged in different participatory actions.
The purpose of the paper is to analyze the issue of the relations between being consumers and being citizens in the consumer society. Many researchers point to deepening crisis of mature democracy and a decrease in social and civil participation, which entails most developed and developing countries, including Poland. The phenomenon present in a context of consumer society and its culture are often indicated among causes of this state. Based on the analysis of social changes in modern world, Zygmunt Bauman arrives at a conclusion that as an individualized entity, the consumer is an enemy of the citizen. The citizen and the consumer have different interests, hierarchies of values and ways of perceiving the world. The Zygmunt Bauman’s thesis is being analyzed in the paper on the basic of author’s research results. In the first part of the study, the typical characteristics of “model” members of a consumer society in the liquid modernity era are discussed (with reference to Bauman’s and other authors’ views). The way a consumer society affects the mentality of its members (the consumers) and their relations with groups, or larger communities (especially civil participation) is addressed. The second part is devoted to the issue of relations between being consumers and being citizens and is based on the research results of author’s research results. The relationships between consumer orientations of AMU students and chosen elements of their civic and social participation are discussed. Finally, the study is concluded with an attempt at explaining the results of research with reference to Bauman’s concept.
The author shows the activity of the inhabitants in the process of revitalization which took place in Poznan at the turn of the 20. and 21. century. Overview of actions demonstrates the transformation of instruments and methods of conduct, but also is a presentation process of self-education of all participants: the associations, municipal authorities and residents. Relevant are also the examples of intentional educational and cultural initiatives addressed to the residents and held with residents in the framework of the Urban Renewal Program. Accumulation of these activities led to stimulate of civic awareness, neighborly relationship and local identification, but also initiated the transformation of individual mental. As a result, they developed a multi-threaded relationship: realization by the people of the right to co-decision and shared responsibility influences the attitudes of representatives of the local authorities and a kind of reciprocal social education, leaning to the subjective treatment of all participants of social processes.
Participatory budgeting has become an important element of empowerment of the residents in the process of spatial planning in Polish cities. The citizens gained the right and a concrete tool to implement their ideas on how to change the city spaces. Many of the projects of participatory budgeting are the results of serious negligence in basic infrastructure in the cities. On the other hand, some of them are an expression of great ingenuity and innovative approach of the citizens to the modernization and arrangements in urban spaces. The civic projects improve quality of life and increase the utility value of public spaces. The main aim of the paper is to review and classify tasks changing public spaces under the formula of participatory budgeting. The research in a form of diagnosis enables to present the directions of participatory budgeting. It helps to monitor and evaluate the social impacts in the process of city space transformations. The subject of analysis are participatory budgets in Łódź and Katowice based on editions in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017.
Though current conservation policy in Poland refl ects world trends and approaches to action, compliance with all of its assumptions would entail the Polish authorities remodelling both the system and the methods by which natural resources are managed. On the one hand this requires a change of approach to the management of natural resources from the traditional, purely nature-related one, to a more modern inter-disciplinary one that takes in social and economic conditioning. On the other hand, a system need to be put in place to allow these ideas to be introduced in practice. The work described here deals with the participation of different stakeholder groups in nature management, with this regarded as a method of increasing the latter’s effi ciency. The many examples (of good practice) presented by the author well illustrate the wisdom of the approach, which often seems to achieve success where it is attempted.
The most important item of city activity is to define development directions. Because of strategic character of this issue, a very important thing is inhabitants’ contribution in decision making. Cooperation between them and city authorities should lead to positive changes in the city and inhabitants’ life quality. They learn social engagement when taking part in determining of city development directions. Showing their creativity and building social relationships in city area. The aim of the paper was determining problems of participation in the describing of city development directions process. In the research there were used several methods: literature studies, logical construction, deduction and observations.