Extremes in the natural world, such as extreme weather phenomena, are rather unpleasant for people. In turn, the extremes that permeate society have far-reaching consequences. But where should extremes be encouraged?
The authoress wishes to discuss the idea of engaging senior citizens into the maintenance and care of historical park and garden complexes. The article illustrates the possible mutual benefits of the cooperation between the caretakers of these complexes and organized groups of senior citizens, who whose participation would be based on a form of voluntary help, through a foundation, or based on monetary compensation. Such a cooperation could lead to an improvement of the condition of historical gardens, in addition to providing beneficial effects to the physical and mental he alth of older people.
The aim of this article is to present circumstances of South american schools functioning in disadvantaged societies on the examples of brazil and peru. Those local societies have been struggling with social and educational poverty, illiteracy, ethnic conflicts, pressures connected with gangs’ activities, etc. in many cases they try to solve their problems on the basis of school which is the center of social activity. These issues are little known in poland and only from literature and journalistic writing what has created their stereotyped image. Meanwhile, you cannot overestimate pedagogical implications of this phenomenon. The expectations of South american local societies are in many cases not the same as the expectations of school defined by creators and administrators of the education system. Pressures and conflicts usually are caused by discrepancy between the activities of the central institutions and the needs (expectations) of different ethnic groups, clans, families and individuals. Students speaking dialects or the languages of ethnic minorities, normally experiencing domestic violence and forced to work on the border of law, are regarded by the education system as the others/aliens. in such a situation the assistance comes from volunteers and professional educators working for non-governmental organizations. Many of them refer to the ideas taken from Freire’s ‘pedagogy of the oppressed’. he was convinced that a man will never be free alone and his hope of freedom lies in education realized in cooperation with the others. The condition of liberating the oppressed individuals and groups from treating themselves as inferior, powerless, dependent on the others’ support ( which is typical for disadvantaged communities) is, according to paulo Freire, obtaining a new level of awareness through, among others, participating in educational projects based on the idea of social dialogue and creating the feeling of independence, elf-responsibility and co-responsibility for their own community. In reflection, which is the basis of the above article, i am trying to answer the following question: in what circumstances a school can be a place of social dialogue and fulfilment of basic expectations of disadvantaged communities members? i assume that even in such exotic societies as Latin american countries you can find a lot of inspiration for solving problems similar to those encountered in poland.
The aim of the article is to discuss the issue of academic revolution in India. Particularly since the globalization, this revolotion is marked by transformation unprecedented in scope and diversity and education particularly higher education is profoundly influenced by the new order. However, it remains unfinished task due adequate statutory support of the government. In Indian context the national aspirations, to establish knowledge society in the context of increasing globalization, is based on the assumption that higher and technical education essentially empower people with requisite competitive skills and knowledge. The emerging trends demonstrate consumer driven approach to enhance marginal capital gains in educational investment. The higher education being a powerful tool to build knowledge based society and also a critical input underlying sustainable development has received a significant attention nowadays.
The Dilemmas of the Kaliningrad Oblast Today. The Kaliningrad Oblast is a Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea neighbouring with the EU countries of Poland and Lithuania. On one hand, the Oblast belongs to the Russian political, economic and defence area, and on the other, it is separated from other parts of the Russian Federation. This specific location affects the nature of the local economy, the dependence on import and a drive towards cooperating with countries abroad. The economic situation of the Kaliningrad Oblast is strictly related to the economic situation of the remaining parts of Russia. Kaliningrad is subject to principles established by the federal centre, and Moscow decides about the most important issues of the region. At the same time, the Oblast makes efforts to provide conditions for social and economic development comparable to the development standards of neighbouring countries. The residents of the Oblast can be characterised by a sense of own identity, their openness to Europe, as well as activeness and entrepreneurship as compared to other Russian citizens. The greatest number of military units in Russia cluster in Kaliningrad Oblast. This potential is continually strengthened with the progressing modernisation of Russian military forces. Small border traffic, initiated in July 21 between the Republic of Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the RF, had a major impact on the animation, volume and the dynamics of cross-border relations and the promotion of Poland. In July 2016, the Polish side suspended the project.
The 16th International Symposium on Sound Engineering and Tonmeistering (ISSET) organized by the Institute of Radioelectronics and Multimedia Technology (Warsaw University of Technology), Department of Sound Engineering (Fryderyk Chopin University of Music) and the Polish Radio, under auspicious of the Polish Section of the Audio Engineering Society was held in Warsaw on October 8-10 in 2015. The main topics of the Symposium covered mostly all domains of audio engineering, i.e. musical acoustics, noise control, signal processing, room acoustics, radio and television, multimedia, sound engineering and tonmeistering, perception and quality assessment, and many others. The extra attention has been paid for the problems of loudness of audio programs in radio and TV broadcasting. Over 60 people from different branches of audio technology participated in this Symposium and shared their knowledge and experiences during the paper sessions, technical tours, workshops and special presentations. The selection of abstracts of the papers presented at the ISSET’2015 are inserted below.
Nowadays, the ubiquity of changes determines a new approach to programming development. In this situation, it is necessary to update the strategy of socio-economic development in many cities. The aim of the paper is to present the process of updating the city’s development strategy on selected examples (Katowice, Cracow, Poznań, Warsaw and Wrocław), through the prism of the scale and tools of public participation. Wrocław is a centre that particularly approached the implementation of the megatrend of public participation in the work on updating the development strategy. The paper delineates differences between public consultations and real public participation. The following research methods were used in the study: literature research, analysis of source texts, benchmarking and comparative analysis. The time horizon covers the period of public participation in the documents’ construction and is different for particular cities selected for analysis, however, it falls in the years 2013-2017.
The author outlines a basic framework for anarcho-capitalism, a stateless social order in which safety, law and adjudication of disputes are provided by private companies (private defense agencies) competing with each other in the free market. In the course of presentation, three fundamental problems of anarcho-capitalism are addressed. (1) Is a peaceful cooperation among agencies possible? (2) Would agencies respect the rights of their customers? (3) How would the law look like in an anarcho-capitalist society? The last problem is especially vexing, since anarcho-capitalists seem to be caught up in a contradiction here. On one hand they are proponents of a specific moral theory (based on non-aggression principle), on the other hand they do not allow for any central, monopolistic agency to impose that moral theory on society. Is it possible for the law in the anarcho-capitalist society to be simultaneously produced by competing agents and remain libertarian at the same time?
The category of expectation constitutes an important element of reflection in many scientific disciplines focusing on man. it is treated in both the categories of expectations inscribed in large social projects (e.g. of utopian nature) and individual expectations which build human daily routine. The article is divided into two parts. in the first, the issues of interpersonal expectations, analysed in the perspective of social psychology and sociology, will be undertaken. what will be explored here are the problems of defining the notion of expectation and the problems of expectations at school, which will be exemplified by the pygmalion effect. The first part is completed with some considerations on the meaning of expectation in sociology, the role of expectations in interaction, and the relations between expecting and social order. In the second part, the author focuses on the issues of expectations inscribed in utopian projects (“great expectations”). pedagogical utopias and relations between utopias and popularization of normative (formal) or informal pedagogies are subjected to analysis. The author makes here some references to the concept of post-materialistic society, attempting to elicit relations between this type of society and popularization of nonformal pedagogies.
In 1844 Max Stirner published The Ego and Its Own, a book doomed to cause uproar, but which failed to seriously antagonize the authorities. No reservations about its printing were voiced, mainly because it was judged that the book contained ideas so absurd as to pose no threat to the public order. K. Marx and F. Engels took exception and criticized The Ego mercilessly, making fun of Stirner’s theoretical ideas in their German Ideology. The critique is much longer than the book itself and it seems rather puzzling that so much space was devoted to an undeserving piece of work. One cannot help but wonder why that seemingly worthless book was made an object of a lengthy analysis. I try to disguise their motives and show why Marx and Engels felt threatened by the utopian and absurd figure of Stirner’s Ego. Against this background I describe Marx’s ideas on man and society.
Information Technologies (IT) are most and most important factor in economical and social development of particular countries and of the whole world, therefore we often think and told about so called Information Society (IS) as a new form of socio-economical organization of the society. Most properties of IT are profitable for the people and most features of IS are positive. Nevertheless we can find also some problems arising because of too fast development of IT and some dangers connected with increasing dependability of present society on IT devices and services. In the paper selected problems connected with distance teaching and distance learning (so called elearning) are pointed out and considered. As a most important problem so called "information smog" is pointed. It is very troublesome at present and may be source of big problem in the future.
Industry 4.0 and the associated idea of society 4.0 pose specific challenges for the concept of sustainable development. These challenges relate, inter alia, to responsibility, in which the changes to date have overall entailed: • a transition from ex post responsibility to ex ante responsibility (H. Jonas); • a transition from individual responsibility to corporate social responsibility. In the context of society 4.0 there is a need for shared responsibility. The problem of justice and therefore the implementation of sustainable development not only becomes an open problem, but also requires constant updating and specifi c optimisation.
The article concerns a case study in the times of Enlightment. In that time the traditional class system has been questioned. The aim of the article was the description of a polemic between Bützow, a court clerk from Greifswald and the Swedish government in Stralsund in 1782 and its historical context. The dispute concerned the question, whether during the national mourning the clerks might put on the relatively cheap lacy cuffs at mourners’ sleeves. The main source for the analysis were files with the number 252 from the state archives in Greifswald. In the Swedish Pomerania, similar to many other places in Europe, and also on the empire’s territory the lacy cuffs were an attribute of nobility and of chosen court officials. The general governor of the Swedish Pomerania guaranteed in 1751 with an issued law the nobility the right to put them on as a symbol of mourning without specification, if the officials also be entitled to wear them. He created therefore an interpretation gap which Bützow tried to use for his aims. The fact that Bützow did not succeed and even had to apologize for his behaviour proves the stability of the traditional class system in the Swedish Pomerania at the end of the 18th century.
Public space in geographical and social aspects. Space as a scientific and social term has many interpretations. Work organizes mutual relations between various kinds of spaces. The paper focuses on the contemporary determinants of shaping a public space in cities regarding the popularization of information and communication technologies. Attention was also paid to the metric feature of social spaces because it is usually neglected while constructing such spaces.
Public Supply of Rental Housing under The National Housing Program – Possible Scenarios of Changes in the Rental Market. The aim of the study is to conduct analyzes of possible scenarios of changes in the housing sector after launching the Plus Apartment Program. Therefore, the purpose of housing policy should be to increase the availability of apartments in the form of rental. The research problem is the answer to the following questions: Is it feasible to intervene in the construction market to increase rental supply? What impact on the private rental market may have on the supply of public housing about the rent lower than the market? What impact can the supply of housing under the Plus Apartment Program on the investment and rental of housing for social building society? In which municipalities and on what scale should I implement the Plus Apartment Program? The study hypothesized that the impact of the public supply of apartments for rent under the Plus Apartment Program on residential markets will depend on local conditions of market development and local housing situation.
The paper will discuss the Russian involvement in the Holy Land that started from informal actions to evolve into formal activities of religious, trading and scientific institutions related to the Russian authorities.