Architecture is a discipline combining aesthetics with technology. This paper is focusing on the relationship between aesthetics and energy efficiency in architecture with special interest in solar collectors and photovoltaic panels as technological equipment of the buildings. The paper takes into consideration the present situation and architectural development in northern Poland, with some input basing on European experiences. The paper defi nes aesthetics and effi ciency in the field of architectural design as well as the use of public and urban spaces. Authors present also some case studies regarding the use of solar panels in selected architectural examples. The paper ends with summary and some conclusions including the need for further research in the field of architectural design, technology and product design, as well as the perception of urbanised spaces and the important field of economic and financial factors connected to the topic.
Photovoltaic cells have been used for a long time to supply the electrical devices of small power in areas without access to the electricity networks (or other sources of electric energy). The ecological aspect of the use of the renewable energy sources, together with the technology development and increasingly lower costs of production the photovoltaic cells, cause the increase of their application. The solar power plants are built in several places in the world, not necessarily in the areas of high light intensity. Nowadays, such developments mostly depend on the wealth of a particular country. The largest photovoltaic power stations have power of a several dozen of MW. The major disadvantage of the photovoltaic cells is that the energy production is possible only during the day. This causes a necessity of energy accumulation in large photovoltaic systems. One possibility of storing large amounts of energy gives a hydrogen fuel, generated in the electrolysers powered directly from photovoltaic cells. Hydrogen, stored in pressure tanks or in tanks with synthetic porous materials, can be again used to produce electricity in fuel cells. This paper introduces selected issues and test results associated with the use of photovoltaic cells to power the hydrogen generators. The possible connections of photovoltaic modules integrated with electrolysers were analyzed. In this article the results of the electricity daily production by polycrystalline photovoltaic cells, collected in the course of the entire year were also presented.
The article shows the proposed solution of the objective function for the seasonal thermal energy storage system. In order to develop this function the technological and economic assumptions were used. In order to select the optimal system configuration mathematical models of the main elements of the system were built. Using these models, and based on the selected design point, the simulation of the entire system for randomly generated outside temperatures was made. The proposed methodology and obtained relationships can be readily used for control purposes, constituting model predicted control (MPC).
This paper presents the possibility of reducing the demand for nonrenewable primary energy for buildings using a new conceptual adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy. Moreover, the aim of this study is to shorten the payback time of investment in the standard adsorption cooling system through its integration with the heating system. Research has been carried out for an energy-efficient medium-sized single-family building with a floor area of 140 m2 and a heat load of 4.2 kW and cold load of 4.41 kW. It has been shown that the use of an adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy decreased the demand for nonrenewable primary energy by about 66% compared to the standard building that meets the current requirements.