The aim of the study is to compare the development of self-esteem and identity integration over time among people with disability and without it (data from norm groups), including people with a spinal cord injury as well as with disabilities caused by other reasons. The research examined self-esteem and identity integration of individuals with disability with regard to disability duration, gender, age, correlation analysis of self-esteem and identity integration. The sample consisted of 133 individuals with acquired disabilities. The study used the Polish adaptations of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Multidimensional Self-Assessment Inventory. Additionally, the respondents with disability completed a form with questions about their age, gender, disability duration and its cause. The outcomes of SES and MSEI modules were checked against the norm groups. The results demonstrated that self-esteem and identity integration do not vary with regard to gender, age or acquired disability conditions. The differences between subjects with disability and the normalized group have proven to be negligible. However, the factor that turned out to be highly significant was the disability duration. Differences have been observed among groups with disability lasting up to 4 months, from 4 months to 2 years, from 2 to 6 years and over 6 years. To sum up, self-esteem and identity integration correlation proved to be high and positive. These findings suggested that the higher the self-esteem, the more integrated the identity, regardless of either the disability type or its degree. The level of self-esteem is subject to differentiation primarily due to disability duration.
In the article I present and criticize the view of classical compatibilism on freedom, i.e. the view according to which free subjects and free actions can exist in the world ruled by universal, exceptionless causality. I claim that compatibilism does not solve the problem of freedom and determinism, but avoids and disregards it. Compatibilism pretends to accomplish the task by playing with semantic tricks that create a misleading impression of ‛compatibility’.
The article is an attempt to collate and present the existing works of Polish geographers who focused on public space in cities, taking two main theoretical and methodological approaches – objective and subjective – under consideration. The article discusses different definitions of the analysed term in an interdisciplinary context as well as indicates main aspects and research directions in geographical studies along with the scholars representing them. Moreover, the authors make an attempt to evaluate the existing state of the art and try to set future perspectives for geographical studies on public space in cities. The article finishes with the authors’ conclusions regarding the necessity to continue the research on public space and the role Polish geographers shall play in it.
In the article the author discusses the relationship between education and socio-cultural needs. The socio – cultural reality is the reality of a permanent change. It is difficult to describe and even more difficult to understand. The specific character of qualitatively new changes in the relations between globality and locality implies a completely new perception of reality, ways of interpreting the world, and a new quality of judgments about the condition of the modern man. This reality is also a ”multiplicity of worlds”, which means a large number of possibilities to create oneself. What individuals perceive as their ”own” has the biggest developmental potential when it is worked out on the proactivity path. proactive people are distinguished by interrelated features: the search for a possibility of change (the environment examination, going beyond limitations of a given situation), establishing effective and change oriented goals (opening new paths of action), foreseeing problems and remedia measures (the analysis of one’s own achievements, looking for signals of threats or dangers), looking for new ways of achieving goals (the ambition is to make a new tradition).
The article is an attempt to define reduction – a phenomenological methodological device – as the beginning of philosophy. The author considers such questions as: What motivates a phenomenologist to do reduction? Can one speak of philosophy before reduction? What is the essence of reduction? To answer these questions the author refers to Edmund Husserl and Jan Patočka, and tries to show that reduction is to be understood as an unmotivated expression of philosopher’s determination to overcome evidence inherent to natural attitude. The author argues that reduction enables one to perform a conceptualization of the world as such. Finally, reduction is defined as an attempt to take thinking seriously.
Urban social movements present themselves as an answer to de3 ciencies of local politics. In this way, they situate themselves in agreement with popular diagnoses of crisis of democracy, and propose their own model of involvement in politics. However, is this model a chance for renewal of democracy, or is it just another version of politics understood as an enlightened management? Does it have the potential for broadening the political, or does it stop halfway? Presented article is an attempt in rethinking those questions. First part compares different political languages, in which critiques of contemporary democracy are formulated. Subsequently, Jacques Rancière’s conception is presented, as emphasising egalitarian and emancipatory dimensions of democracy. Examples of rhetorics and actions of urban social movements are considered in this double context of different political languages and radical character of democracy. The problem of ‘deficient political articulation’, which makes urban social movements unable to fully keep the promises they make, is stressed.