This paper identifies the adverse events occurring during the execution of water supply and sewerage systems construction. The basis for this paper is research conducted in 2010-2014 on the construction sites of water supply and sewerage systems located in the provinces of Lower Silesia and Opole. The research consisted of direct observations of construction sites and review of construction documentation. It showed that work stoppages on the examined construction sites were frequent. They were caused by violations of work discipline by the production employees, adverse weather conditions, and defects in the project documentation. The study demonstrated that in almost every case, these bad an adverse effect on the completion date and budget of the investment. The analyses show that in such important and expensive investments as water supply and sewerage systems, organizational structures in which a special role is assigned to middle-rank personnel should be adopted.
The aim of the paper is to compare nitrate concentrations in samples of supply water as well as water from deep and dug wells located in the eastern region of Poland. Additionally, samples of bottled water (spring and natural mineral), certifi ed by the Institute of Mother and Child and the Children’s Memorial Health Institute, were subjected to analyses. On the basis of the obtained results, health risks related to the occurrence of methemoglobinemia in neonates and infants were evaluated. The risk analysis was performed according to the procedure recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Nitrate concentrations in the examined samples ranged from: 0.153–161.1 mg/l. The lowest concentration of nitrates was determined in the samples of bottled water, the highest being detected in the water from dug wells. It was found that nitrate concentration in samples of bottled and supply water did not pose any risk to the health of neonates and infants. The highest health risk related to methemoglobinemia occurs for neonates consuming water originating from dug wells. The risk decreases along with the age of an infant.
The purpose of this article is to present a new bell type water well construction with circulating treatment and its application. The construction of the water well has been developed and research has been conducted using physical and electrical modelling as well as in the practical field. Researches in this work are of analytical and experimental character. As the results of the research, optimal physical parameters of the constructions have been found and analytical empirical formulae have been derived to calculate hydraulic parameters. Recommendation for application has been presented. The results received in this work can be used for the application of well construction. Further research is required to improve the physical and the hydraulic parameters of the proposed construction. The work has scientific and practical interest.