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Abstrakt

This paper presents methods of separating the plateau part for various types of two-process profiles, having the traces of two processes. The traditional method based on the plateau-valley threshold, according to the ISO 13565-3 standard, is not always sufficient, since the valley portion can include plateau roughness. Starting and finishing points of each plateau in the measured profiles should be determined. The procedure found in the technical literature depends on setting not only the plateau-valley threshold but also a lower threshold. This approach was a little modified for profiles that contain both random and deterministic topography components. A new procedure of determination of the lower threshold was proposed for stratified profiles containing two deterministic parts. The valleys can be characterized by their widths and the distance between them. In addition, a description of the material probability curve is proposed.
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Abstrakt

In this paper, an analysis of various factors affecting machined surface texture is presented. The investigation was focused on ball end mill inclination against the work piece (defined by surface inclination angle a. Surface roughness was investigated in a 3D array, and measurements were conducted parallel to the feed motion direction. The analysis of machined surface irregularities as a function of frequency (wavelength A), on the basis of the Power Density Spectrum - PDS was also carried out. This kind of analysis is aimed at valuation of primary factors influencing surface roughness generation as well as its randomness. Subsequently, a surface roughness model including cutter displacements was developed. It was found that plain cutting with ball end mill (surface inclination angle a= 0°) is unfavorable from the point of view of surface roughness, because in cutter’s axis the cutting speed vc ~ 0 m/min. This means that a cutting process does not occur, whereas on the machined surface some characteristics marks can be found. These marks do not appear in case of a* 0°, because the cutting speed vc * 0 on the fill I length of the active cutting edge and as a result, the machined surface texture is more homogenous. Surface roughness parameters determined on the basis of the model including cutter displacements are closer to experimental data for cases with inclination angles a* 0°, in comparison with those determined for plain cutting (a= 0°). It is probably caused by higher contribution in surface irregularities generation of plastic and elastic deformations cumulated near the cutter’s free end than kinematic and geometric parameters, as well as cutter displacements.
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Abstrakt

The results of surface texture measurements obtained with the stylus equipment, white light interferometer and confocal profilometer of the same samples were compared. Machined isotropic and anisotropic surfaces, of symmetric and asymmetric ordinate distribution were measured. Forms were removed using polynomials. Sampling intervals and measuring areas during computations of parameters were the same. Discrepancies between the results obtained with various methods were observed and discussed. It was found that errors of surface texture measurement with the optical methods depend on the type of surface topography.
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Physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils and especially the properties of surface horizons of the soils are very important because they are responsible for the rate and character of plant colonization, development of vegetation cover, and influence the rate and depth of thawing of soils and development of active layer of permafrost during summer. The main aim of the present study is to determine and explain the spatial diversity of selected physical and chemical properties of surface horizons of Arctic soils from the non-glaciated Fuglebekken catchment located in the Hornsund area (SW Spitsbergen) by means of geostatistical approach. Results indicate that soil surface horizons in the Fuglebekken catchment are characterized by highly variable physical and chemical properties due to a heterogeneous parent material (marine sediments, moraine, rock debris), tundra vegetation types, and non-uniform influence of seabirds. Soils experiencing the strongest influence of seabird guano have a lower pH than other soils. Soils developed on the lateral moraine of the Hansbreen glacier have the highest pH due to the presence of carbonates in the parent material and a lack or presence of a poorly developed and discontinuous A horizon. The soil surface horizons along the coast of the Hornsund exhibit the highest content of the sand fraction and SiO2. The surface of soils occurring at the foot of the slope of Ariekammen Ridge is characterized by the highest content of silt and clay fractions as well as Al2O3, Fe2O3, and K2O. Soils in the central part of the Fuglebekken catchment are depleted in CaO, MgO, and Na2O in comparison with soils in the other sampling sites, which indicates the highest rate of leaching in this part of the catchment.
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The research aimed to establish tyre-road noise models by using a Data Mining approach that allowed to build a predictive model and assess the importance of the tested input variables. The data modelling took into account three learning algorithms and three metrics to define the best predictive model. The variables tested included basic properties of pavement surfaces, macrotexture, megatexture, and unevenness and, for the first time, damping. Also, the importance of those variables was measured by using a sensitivity analysis procedure. Two types of models were set: one with basic variables and another with complex variables, such as megatexture and damping, all as a function of vehicles speed. More detailed models were additionally set by the speed level. As a result, several models with very good tyre-road noise predictive capacity were achieved. The most relevant variables were Speed, Temperature, Aggregate size, Mean Profile Depth, and Damping, which had the highest importance, even though influenced by speed. Megatexture and IRI had the lowest importance. The applicability of the models developed in this work is relevant for trucks tyre-noise prediction, represented by the AVON V 4 test tyre, at the early stage of road pavements use. Therefore, the obtained models are highly useful for the design of pavements and for noise prediction by road authorities and contractors.
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Abstrakt

Signal analysis performed during surface texture measurement frequently involves applying the Fourier transform. The method is particularly useful for assessing roundness and cylindrical profiles. Since the wavelet transform is becoming a common tool for signal analysis in many metrological applications, it is vital to evaluate its suitability for surface texture profiles. The research presented in this paper focused on signal decomposition and reconstruction during roundness profile measurement and the effect of these processes on the changes in selected roundness profile parameters. The calculations were carried out on a sample of 100 roundness profiles for 12 different forms of mother wavelets using MATLAB. The use of Spearman's rank correlation coefficients allowed us to evaluate the relationship between the two chosen criteria for selecting the optimal mother wavelet.
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Abstrakt

This work is focused on the issue of non-measured points – one of the most important problems in surface texture measurements using optical methods. The fundamental aim of this research is to analyse errors of surface texture measurements caused by the presence of non-measured points. This study is divided into two parts. In the first part, circles with non-measured points were artificially created on peak portions of measured surfaces. In the second part – the results of measurement by a Talysurf CCI Lite interferometer were analysed. A measurement area of 3.3 × 3.3 mm contained 1024 × 1024 points. The measurements were performed with different intensity of light. Changes of parameters regarding the analysed errors depended on a surface type. The following parameters are susceptible to errors: skewness Ssk, areal material ratio Smr, as well as the following feature parameters: Spd, Sda, Sdv, Sha and Shv. Inaccuracies of measurement in valley parts of two-process textures led usually to larger errors of parameter computations compared with deviations in peak portions.
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