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Abstract

Measurements of dynamic surface tension were carried out in aqueous systems (water or 0.1 mM Triton X-100) comprising nanoparticles formed from chemically modified polyaldehyde dextran (PAD). The nanostructures, considered as potential drug carriers in aerosol therapy, were obtained from biocompatible polysaccharides by successive oxidation and reactive coiling in an aqueous solution. The dynamic surface tension of the samples was determined by the maximum bubble pressure (MBP) method and by the axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA). Experiments with harmonic area perturbations were also carried out in order to determine surface dilatational viscoelasticity. PAD showed a remarkable surface activity. Ward-Tordai equation was used to determine the equilibrium surface tension and diffusion coefficient of PAD nanoparticles (D = 2.3×10-6 m2/s). In a mixture with Triton X-100, PAD particles showed co-adsorption and synergic effect in surface tension reduction at short times (below 10 s). Tested nanoparticles had impact on surface rheology in a mixed system with nonionic surfactant, suggesting their possible interactions with the lung surfactant system after inhalation. This preliminary investigation sets the methodological approach for further research related to the influence of inhaled PAD nanoparticles on the lung surfactant and mass transfer processes in the respiratory system.
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Abstract

A complex model of mechanically ventilated ARDS lungs is proposed in the paper. This analogue is based on a combination of four components that describe breathing mechanics: morphology, mechanical properties of surfactant, tissue and chest wall characteristics. Physical-mathematical formulas attained from experimental data have been translated into their electrical equivalents and implemented in MultiSim software. To examine the adequacy of the forward model to the properties and behaviour of mechanically ventilated lungs in patients with ARDS symptoms, several computer simulations have been performed and reported in the paper. Inhomogeneous characteristics observed in the physical properties of ARDS lungs were mapped in a multi-lobe model and the measured outputs were compared with the data from physiological reports. In this way clinicians and scientists can obtain the knowledge on the moment of airway zone reopening/closure expressed as a function of pressure, volume or even time. In the paper, these trends were assessed for inhomogeneous distributions (proper for ARDS) of surfactant properties and airway geometry in consecutive lung lobes. The proposed model enables monitoring of temporal alveolar dynamics in successive lobes as well as those occurring at a higher level of lung structure organization, i.e. in a point P0 which can be used for collection of respiratory data during indirect management of recruitment/de-recruitment processes in ARDS lungs. The complex model and synthetic data generated for various parametrization scenarios make possible prospective studies on designing an indirect mode of alveolar zone management, i.e. with
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