A determination of the heating degree of the moulding sand with bentonite on the grounds of simulating investigations with the application of the MAGMA program, constitutes the contents of the paper. To this end the numerical simulation of the temperature distribution in the virtual casting mould was performed. It was assumed that the mould cavity was filled with a moulding sand with bentonite of a moisture content 3,2 % and bentonite content 8 %. A computer simulation can be used for predicting the heating degree of moulding sands with bentonite. Thus, prediction of the active bentonite (montmorillonite) content in individual layers of the overheated moulding sand can be done by means of the simulation. An overheating degree of a moulding sand with bentonite, and thus the bentonite deactivation depends on a temperature of a casting alloy, casting mass, ratio of: masssand : masscasting, moulding sand amount in the mould and contact area: metal – mould (geometry of the casting shape). Generally it can be stated, that the bentonite deactivation degree depends on two main factors: temperature of moulding sand heating and time of its operation.
In the paper presented is a novel concept to utilize the heat from the turbine bleed to improve the quality of working fluid vapour in the bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC). That is a completely novel solution in the literature, which contributes to the increase of ORC efficiency and the overall efficiency of the combined system of the power plant and ORC plant. Calculations have been accomplished for the case when available is a flow rate of low enthalpy hot water at a temperature of 90 °C, which is used for preliminary heating of the working fluid. That hot water is obtained as a result of conversion of exhaust gases in the power plant to the energy of hot water. Then the working fluid is further heated by the bleed steam to reach 120 °C. Such vapour is subsequently directed to the turbine. In the paper 5 possible working fluids were examined, namely R134a, MM, MDM, toluene and ethanol. Only under conditions of 120 °C/40 °C the silicone oil MM showed the best performance, in all other cases the ethanol proved to be best performing fluid of all. Results are compared with the "stand alone" ORC module showing its superiority.
The paper presents heat transfer calculation results concerning a control rod of Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The part of the control rod, which is the object of interest, is surrounded by a mixing region of hot and cold flows and, as a consequence, is subjected to thermal fluctuations. The paper describes a numerical test which validates the method based on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). The comparison of the results achieved by two methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and IHCP, including a description of the IHCP method used in the calculation process, shows a very good agreement between the methods.
The following paper presents the method for solving one-dimensional inverse boundary heat conduction problems. The method is used to estimate the unknown thermal boundary condition on inner surface of a thick-walled Y-branch. Solution is based on measured temperature transients at two points inside the element's wall thickness. Y-branch is installed in a fresh steam pipeline in a power plant in Poland. Determination of an unknown boundary condition allows for the calculation of transient temperature distribution in the whole element. Next, stresses caused by non-uniform transient temperature distribution and by steam pressure inside a Y-branch are calculated using the finite element method. The proposed algorithm can be used for thermal-strength state monitoring in similar elements, when it is not possible to determine a 3-D thermal boundary condition. The calculated temperature and stress transients can be used for the calculation of element durability. More accurate temperature and stress monitoring will contribute to a substantial decrease of maximal stresses that occur during transient start-up and shut-down processes.
This article describes the influence of thermal and dielectric properties of materials to properties of electrical insulating systems in high voltage electrical equipment. The aim of this experiment is to improve the thermal and dielectric properties of electrical insulating (composite) materials using micro fillers of aluminium oxide Al2O3. Supplement of fillers of aluminium oxide with better thermal conductivity to the electrical insulating systems can be modified to increase their thermal conductivity. Improving the thermal conductivity of electric insulation by addition of micro- or nanofillers and in the same time not adversely affecting the dielectric properties is the objective of the study. Paper is presenting the results measured on prepared samples. Improved thermal conductivity is compared with other dielectric properties as: dissipation factor temperature dependences, resistivity and dielectric spectroscopy. To determine the dielectric insulating properties the following characteristics were measured: tanδ versus temperature from 110°C to 150°C, absorption and resorption currents, volume resistivity. Furthermore, this article describes analysis of moisture and conductivity the material by dielectric spectroscopy.
Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5°C with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40°C, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.
Usually porous metals are known as relatively excellent characteristic such as large surface area, light, lower heat capacity, high toughness and permeability for exhaust gas filter, hydrogen reformer catalyst support. The Ni alloys have high corrosion resistance, heat resistance and chemical stability for high temperature applications. In this study, the Ni-based porous metals have been developed with Hastelloy powder by gas atomization and water atomization in order to find the effects of powder shape on porous metal. Each Hastelloy powder is pressed on disk shape of 2 mm thickness with 12 tons using uniaxial press machine. The specimens are sintered at various temperatures in high vacuum condition. The pore properties were evaluated using Porometer and microstructures were observed with SEM.
This paper discusses issues related to optimising the technological parameters of the process of brazing gold in a vacuum furnace. An investigation of the brazing process was carried out for materials used in constructing components for aircraft engine fuel systems. The vacuum brazed material was AMS 5510 stainless steel (in the form of plates and pipes). AMS 4787 (BAu-4) was used as the brazing filler. In particular, the influence of the method of preparing the surface on solder spreading and the thickness of the diffusion zone were analysed. The best spreading of solder was obtained for nickel plated surfaces. When the sample surface was more rough or scratched, the effect of the spreading of solder was limited and the diffusion process of the solder into the base material became dominant. Moreover, the influence of the brazing temperature on microstructure changes and on interdiffusion of the AMS 5510 stainless steel/BAu-4 solder system was determined. It was observed that an increase in the brazing temperature modifies the morphology of the formed joint by forming a massive and rounded phase. Furthermore, an increase in the brazing temperature enhances the exchange of components.
Convective and radiation heat transfer take place between various objects placed in open air space and their surroundings. These phenomena bring about heat losses from pipelines, building walls, roofs and other objects. One of the main tasks in energy auditing is the reduction of excessive heat losses. In the case of a low sky temperature, the radiation heat exchange is very intensive and the temperature of the top part of the horizontal pipelines or walls is lower than the temperature of their bottom parts. Quite often this temperature is also lower than the temperature of the surrounding atmospheric air. In the case of overhead heat pipelines placed in open air space, it is the ground and sky that constitute the surroundings. The aforementioned elements of surroundings usually have different values of temperature. Thus, these circumstances bring about difficulties during infrared inspections because only one ambient temperature which represents radiation of all surrounding elements must be known during the thermovision measurements. This work is aimed at the development of a method for determination of an equivalent ambient temperature representing the thermal radiation of the surrounding elements of the object under consideration placed in open air space, which could be applied at a fairly uniform temperature of the sky during the thermovision measurements as well as for the calculation of radiative heat losses.
Distribution of the exhaust gas temperature within the furnace of a grate boiler greatly depends on its operating parameters such as output. It has a considerably different character than temperature distributions in other types of boilers (with pulverised or fluidised bed), as it varies considerably across the chamber. Results presented in this paper have been obtained through research of a grate-fired hot water boiler with a nominal rating of some 30 MW. Measurements have been taken by introducing temperature sensors into prearranged openings placed in the boiler side walls. Investigation has been carried out for different output levels. Tests involved thermocouples in ceramic coating and aspirated thermocouples. The latter were used to eliminate influence of radiative heat transfer on measured results. Values obtained with both methods have been cross-checked.
This paper presents the results of research on high performance concretes (HPC) modified by theaddition of polypropylene fibres (PP fibres). The scope of the research was the measurement of theresidual transport properties of heated and recooled concretes: gas permeability and surface waterabsorption. Seven types of concrete modified with fibrillated PP fibres were tested. Three lengths: 6,12 and 19 mm and three amounts of fibres: 0, 0.9 and 1.8 kg/m3 were used. The research programmewas designed to determine which length of fibres, used in which minimum amount, will, after thefibres melt, permit the development of a connected network and pathway for gases and liquids.
The paper presents the solution to a problem of determining the heat flux density and the heat transfer coefficient, on the basis of temperature measurement at three locations in the flat sensor, with the assumption that the heat conductivity of the sensor material is temperature dependent. Three different methods for determining the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient, with their practical applications, are presented. The uncertainties in the determined values are also estimated.
Second law analysis (entropy generation) for the steady two-dimensional laminar forced convection flow, heat and mass transfer of an incompressible viscous fluid past a nonlinearly stretching porous (permeable) wedge is numerically studied. The effects of viscous dissipation, temperature jump, and first-order chemical reaction on the flow over the wedge are also considered. The governing boundary layer equations for mass, momentum, energy and concentration are transformed using suitable similarity transformations to three nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Then, the ODEs are solved by using a Keller’s box algorithm. The effects of various controlling parameters such as wedge angle parameter, velocity ratio parameter, suction/injection parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number, temperature jump parameter, Schmidt number, and reaction rate parameter on dimensionless velocity, temperature, concentration, entropy generation number, and Bejan number are shown in graphs and analyzed. The results reveal that the entropy generation number increases with the increase of wedge angle parameter, while it decreases with the increase of velocity ratio parameter. Also, in order to validate the obtained numerical results of the present work, comparisons are made with the available results in the literature as special cases, and the results are found to be in a very good agreement.
The work presents a computer simulation realized with the ADINA program concerning nanoindendation test. A shape of nanoindenter was proposed to be similar to the real surgical tools. The theoretical model was used to predict phenomena which would appear in practice. The contribution of the TiN coating thickness to the implant rigid properties was simulated. Three types of extortion conditions could be considered, i.e., short contact with surgery tool (i); long continuous contact with natural tissue (ii); long cyclic contact with natural tissue (iii). In the first part of the work, the authors focused on the first type of extortion (i). The second part of the work is dedicated to the calculations of temperature impact to layer behaviour. Two layer thicknesses are considered i.e., 250 nm and 50 nm. The examined coatings find serious practical applications as a blood-contacting material in medicine. The coatings were subjected to transmission electron microscopy investigations. Columnar mechanism of film growth controlled by kinetic process is stated to operate for the considered range of layer thickness. Plasma temperature is observed to influence the substrate behaviour. Examinations of thinner layers, i.e. under 100nm, revealed higher degree of smoothness and uniformity, which could be related to the operation of the surface diffusion mechanism at the early stage of deposition. The physical explanation of TEM images was based on the finite element calculations of the temperature distribution using the ADINA program .
The paper evaluates two approaches of numerical modelling of solidification of continuously cast steel billets by finite element method, namely by the numerical modelling under the Steady-State Thermal Conditions, and by the numerical modelling with the Traveling Boundary Conditions. In the paper, the 3D drawing of the geometry, the preparation of computational mesh, the definition of boundary conditions and also the definition of thermo-physical properties of materials in relation to the expected results are discussed. The effect of thermo-physical properties on the computation of central porosity in billet is also mentioned. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of two described approaches are listed and the direction of the next research in the prediction of temperature field in continuously cast billets is also outlined.
The paper discusses the possibility of improving resistance of heat exchangers made of gray cast iron with flake graphite to hightemperature corrosion by providing them with metallic coatings. A metallic coating containing 76.9% Ni, 19.8% Cr, 1.7% Si, 0.9% Fe, and 0.9% Mn was applied by means of the plasma spraying method and subjected to cyclically variable thermal loads in the atmosphere of solid fuels combustion products (oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and sodium). In a 30-day thermal load test held at temperature 500°C it has been found that thickness of the metallic coating decreased from the initial (240 ± 6) μm to (231 ± 6) μm. The depth to which sulfur, chlorine, and sodium penetrated the coating was about 30 μm. Increased oxygen content occurred along the whole coating depth. In the coating area adjacent to the substrate surface, the content was twice as high compared to this observed in the initial coating material. Although presence of oxygen was found within the whole depth of the coating, i.e. (231 ± 6) μm, no signs of susceptibility of the sprayed metallic layer to separation from substrate of gray cast iron with flake graphite were found.
The purpose of this paper is to depict the effect of diffusion and internal heat source on a two-temperature magneto-thermoelastic medium. The effect of magnetic field on two-temperature thermoelastic medium within the three-phase-lag model and Green-Naghdi theory without energy dissipation i discussed. The analytical method used to obtain the formula of the physical quantities is the normal mode analysis. Numerical results for the field quantities given in the physical domain are illustrated on the graphs. Comparisons are made with results of the two models with and without diffusion as well as the internal heat source and in the absence and presence of a magnetic field.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of adding bio-components in the form of methyl esters of corn oil to the milesPLUS diesel oil on its fractional composition. The corn biofuel was produced in-house by using an own-design GW-200 reactor. The diesel fuel evaporated at temperatures ranging from 162 to 352oC. The addition of 7, 20 and 40% of a bio-component in principle does not affect the deterioration of the starting point distillation temperatures. They affect the temperature at the end of distillation to a greater extent, resulting in temperatures exceeding 360oC.
Postharvest processing of grain is an important step in the overall grain production process. It makes possible not only quantitative and qualitative preservation of the harvest, but also ensures maximum profit from its sale at the most favorable market conditions. Convective heat treatment (drying, cooling) guarantees commercial harvest conservation, prevents its loss, and in some cases improves the quality of the finished product. The necessity of intensification and automation of technological processes of postharvest grain processing requires the development of methods of mathematical modeling of energy-intensive processes of convective heat treatment. The determination and substantiation of optimum modes and parameters of equipment operation to ensure the preservation of grain quality is possible only when applying mathematical modeling techniques. In this work, a mathematical model of particulate material drying is presented through a system of differential equations in partial derivatives of which the variable in time and space relationship between heat and mass transfer processes in the material and a drying agent is reflected. The aim of the research was to determine the dynamics of the interrelated fields of unsteady temperature and moisture content of the material and the drying agent on the basis of mathematical models of heat and mass transfer in the layer of particulate material in convective heat approach or heat retraction. The implementation of the mathematical model proposed in the standard mathematical set allows analyzing efficiency of machines and equipment for the convective heat treatment of particulate agricultural materials in a dense layer, according the determinant technological parameters and operating modes.
The influence of external factors, temperature and flow velocity on the corrosion processes St3 in model solutions petrochemical plant recycled water with high salinity and hardness without open systems and in the presence of the inhibiting composition. It was found that an increase in temperature leads to a linear increase in corrosion rates, and the change in circulating water flow rate leads to the extreme nature of corrosion processes; optimal conditions are determined. Recommended use of cathodic inhibitors or mixed type inhibitor, in particular, the composition "SVOD-BI" (means for controlling the biological corrosion), which can significantly reduce the effect of temperature and flow on the corrosion rate St3, promotes the growth and strengthening of the oxide film in the presence of oxygen, increases the degree of protection of steel and preventing the formation of at its surface carbonate-calcium deposits.