The article presents briefly several methods of working time estimation. However, three methods of task duration assessment have been selected to investigate working time in a real construction project using the data collected from observing workers laying terrazzo flooring in staircases. The first estimation has been done by calculating a normal and a triangular function. The next method, which is the focus of greatest attention here, is PERT. The article presents a way to standardize the results and the procedure algorithm allowing determination of the characteristic values for the method. Times to perform every singular component sub-task as well as the whole task have been defined for the collected data with the reliability level of 85%. The completion time of the same works has also been calculated with the use of the KNR. The obtained result is much higher than the actual time needed for execution of the task calculated with the use of the previous method. The authors argue that PERT is the best method of all three, because it takes into account the randomness of the entire task duration and it can be based on the actual execution time known from research.
The stability analysis for discrete-time fractional linear systems with delays is presented. The state-space model with a time shift in the difference is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for practical stability and for asymptotic stability have been established. The systems with only one matrix occurring in the state equation at a delayed moment have been also considered. In this case analytical conditions for asymptotic stability have been given. Moreover parametric descriptions of the boundary of practical stability and asymptotic stability regions have been presented.
The rheological properties of self-compacting concrete are closely influenced by temperature and the time. Previous studies which aim was to research the effect of temperature on self-compacting concrete workability, showed that the behaviour of fresh SCC at varying temperatures differs from that of normal vibrated concrete. The paper presents the study of rheological properties of fresh self-compacting concrete mixtures made with portland, blast furnace and component cement. Two types of superplasticizers were used. It was proven that temperature has a clear effect on workability; it can be reduced by selecting the appropriate superplasticizer and cement.
The positivity and absolute stability of a class of nonlinear continuous-time and discretetime systems are addressed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity of this class of nonlinear systems are established. Sufficient conditions for the absolute stability of this class of nonlinear systems are also given.
The objectives of this study were to examine the option of being able to use rumination time (RT) as a form of stress indicator in the first thirty days after calving, and to determine the rela- tionship between rumination time, blood cortisol levels, and lactate concentration levels in dairy cows during the first thirty days after calving. Ninety cows which produced milk (DIM) within 1-30 days were selected and categorised into the following groups: the first group (1) fell within 1-7 days after parturition (dpp) (n=30); the second group (2) fell within 8-14dpp (n=30); and the third group (3) fell within 15-30dpp (n=30) after calving. The cows were milked using Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots with free traffic. The blood samples were tested using the fluorescence enzyme immunoassay method for cortisol analysis. Lactate concentrations were tested with a Lactate Pro2 ®. The RT increased during all of the exploratory periods (with readings between 1.12-4.90%). A decrease was also observed in the lactate levels (by 1.10 times) and cortisol levels (by 1.98 times, p<0.05) of cows which fell within the 8-14dpp group, when compared to an average of 1-7dpp in the previous study period (15-30dpp). However, lactate concentrations increased (by 1.84 times, p<0.05) as well as cortisol levels (by 2.09 times, p <0.01) when compared with a figure between 8-14 dpp on the average. The results obtained indicate that, RT increased during all exploratory periods, while a decrease by 1.10 times and 1.98 times was observed in lactate levels and cortisol levels, respectively. During the entire period of the study RT was positively correlated with the lactate concentration levels, and negatively correlated with cortisol levels. Within a period of 1-14 days, a negative correlation was determined with lactate levels along with a 15-30dpp-positive correlation coefficient. In conclusion, RT can be used as a kind of stress indicator for cows in the first thirty days after calving; however, further research is required to ascertain this conclusion.
The basic element of a project organizing construction works is a schedule. The preparation of the data necessary to specify the timings of the construction completion as indicated in the schedule involves information that is uncertain and hard to quantify. The article presents the methods of building a schedule which includes a fuzzy amount of labour, time standards and number of workers. The proposed procedure allows determining the real deadline for project completion, taking into account variable factors affecting the duration of the individual works.
The paper presents a novel implementation of a time-to-digital converter (TDC) in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. The design employs FPGA digital signal processing (DSP) blocks and gives more than two-fold improvement in mean resolution in comparison with the common conversion method (carry chain-based time coding line). Two TDCs are presented and tested depending on DSP configuration. The converters were implemented in a Kintex-7 FPGA device manufactured by Xilinx in 28 nm CMOS process. The tests performed show possibilities to obtain mean resolution of 4.2 ps but measurement precision is limited to at most 15 ps mainly due to high conversion nonlinearities. The presented solution saves FPGA programmable logic blocks and has an advantage of a wider operation range when compared with a carry chain-based time coding line.
The article is devoted to contemporary studies on the nineteenth century memoirs written by Russian women. In the nineteenth century women’s memoirs were underestimated and neglected by researchers. Recently, there has been a signifi cant increase in research interest in memoirs written by women. This subject has been taken up by literary scholars, historians, experts on cultural studies and anthropologists. A. Bielova, I. Savkina, W. Laszczak, K. Kosowska, N. Pushkariova, A. Fieduta, W. Ponomarieva, L. Khoroshilova, J. Prikazchikova, A. Stankewich, J. Samofalova, O. Mamaieva, S. Tatarkina are among those who are interested in it. Memoirs are a valuable source of information about the epoch, historical events, outstanding leaders, event-making fi gures, Russian intellectual elites, aristocracy as well as the everyday life of the Russian gentry. They also provide some insight into the way female memoirists expressed themselves in their writings, their views on femininity and the role of women in society.
The paper presents some important aspects concerning material constants of concrete and stages of modeling of reinforced concrete structures. The problems taken into account are: a choice of proper material model for concrete, establishing of compressive and tensile behavior of concrete and establishing the values of dilation angle, fracture energy and relaxation time for concrete. Proper values of material constants are fix ed in simple compression and tension tests. The effectiveness and correctness of applied model is checked on the example of reinforced concrete frame corners under opening bending moment. Calculations are performed in Abaqus software using Concrete Damaged Plasticity model of concrete.
The objective of the presented paper is to investigate the performance of concrete containing volcanic scoria as cement replacement after 7, 28, 90, and 180 days curing. Five performance indicators have been studied. Compressive strength, water permeability, porosity, chloride penetrability, and reinforcement corrosion resistance have all been evaluated. Concrete specimens were produced with replacement levels ranging from 10 to 35%. Test results revealed that curing time had a large influence on all the examined performance indicators of scoria-based concrete. Water permeability, porosity, and chloride penetrability of scoria-based concrete mixes were much lower than that of plain concrete. Concretes produced with scoria-based binders also decelerated rebar corrosion, particularly after longer curing times. Furthermore, an estimation equation has been developed by the authors to predict the studied performance indicators, focusing on the curing time and the replacement level of volcanic scoria. SEM/EDX analysis has been reported as well.
Describing the gas boiler fuel consumption as a time series gives the opportunity to use tools appropriate for the processing of such data to analyze this phenomenon. One of them are ARIMA models. The article proposes this type of model to be used for predicting monthly gas consumption in a boiler room working for heating and hot water preparation. The boiler supplies heat to a group of residential buildings. Based on the collected data, three specific models were selected for which the forecast accuracy was assessed. Calculations and analyses were carried out in the R environment using “forecast” and “ggplot2” packages. A good quality of the obtained forecasts has been demonstrated, confirming the usefulness of the proposed analytical tools. The article summary also indicates for what purposes the forecasts obtained in this way can be used. They can be useful for diagnosing the correct operation of a heat source. Registering fuel consumption at a level significantly deviating from the forecast should be a signal to immediately diagnose the boiler room and the heat supply system and to explain the reason for this difference. In this way, it is possible to detect irregularities in the operation of the heat supply system before they are detected by traditional methods. The gas consumption forecast is also useful for optimizing the financial management of the property manager responsible for the operation of the boiler room. On this basis, operating fees or financial operations with the use of periodic surplus capital may be planned.
The paper discusses acoustic problems in the contemporary Catholic church, and presents a study of the influence of the ceiling structure on acoustics in the interior for two types of ceiling structures, i.e. the truss type and the reinforced concrete one. The investigations involved six contemporary churches: three buildings with a truss type ceiling and three buildings with a reinforced concrete ceiling. The results reveal that in churches with a truss type ceiling, acoustic parameters reach values close to recommendations. In contrast, churches with a concrete ceiling create very unfavourable acoustic conditions. The investigations rendered it possible to calculate the sound absorption coefficient α for the truss type cover.
The purpose of this analysis is to deal with the first of the conditions for commencement of laytime, i.e. obligation of the vessel to arrive at the agreed destination. The position, prima facie, with regard to berth, dock or port is relatively straightforward, it having been established that the vessel only becomes an arrived ship when it enters the specified berth, dock or port, respectively. In all three cases, in principle, the risk of delay in reaching the specified berth, dock or port is borne by the shipowner. In many cases, the shipowners, for obvious reasons are not prepared to bear such a risk for loss and take appropriate action. In particular, they demand the inclusion, in the charterparty, of a specific clause shifting the risk of such loss. We will deal therein below with one of the most commonly used forms of such a clause namely – “Time lost waiting for a berth clause” against broader picture of current English jurisdiction.
The problem of optimally controlling a Wiener process until it leaves an interval (a; b) for the first time is considered in the case when the infinitesimal parameters of the process are random. When a = ��1, the exact optimal control is derived by solving the appropriate system of differential equations, whereas a very precise approximate solution in the form of a polynomial is obtained in the two-barrier case.
In this paper a small time local controllability, naturally defined in a configuration space, is transferred into a task-space. It was given its analytical characterization and practical implications. A special attention was put on singular configurations. Theoretical considerations were illustrated with two calculation examples. An extensive comparison of the proposed construction with the controllability defined in an endogenous configuration space approach was presented pointing out to their advantages and disadvantages.
Position time series from permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations are commonly used for estimating secular velocities of discrete points on the Earth’s surface. An understanding of background noise in the GNSS position time series is essential to obtain realistic estimates of velocity uncertainties. The current study focuses on the investigation of background noise in position time series obtained from thirteen permanent GNSS stations located in Nepal Himalaya using the spectral analysis method. The power spectrum of the GNSS position time series has been estimated using the Lomb–Scargle method. The iterative nonlinear Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm has been applied to estimate the spectral index of the power spectrum. The power spectrum can be described by white noise in the high frequency zone and power law noise in the lower frequency zone. The mean and the standard deviation of the estimated spectral indices are ��1:46#6;0:14;��1:39#6;0:16 and ��1:53#6;0:07 for north, east and vertical components, respectively. On average, the power law noise extends up to a period of ca. 21 days. For a shorter period, i.e. less than ca. 21 days, the spectra are white. The spectral index corresponding to random walk noise (ca. –2) is obtained for a site located above the base of a seismogenic zone which can be due to the combined effect of tectonic and nontectonic factors rather than a spurious monumental motion. Overall, the usefulness of investigating the background noise in the GNSS position time series is discussed.
The positive asymptotically stable continuous-time linear systems are approximated by corresponding asymptotically stable discrete-time linear systems. Two methods of the approximation are presented and the comparison of the methods is addressed. The considerations are illustrated by three numerical examples and an example of positive electrical circuit.
The practical and asymptotic stabilities of delayed fractional discrete-time linear systems described by the model without a time shift in the difference are addressed. The D-decomposition approach is used for stability analysis. New necessary and sufficient stability conditions are established. The conditions in terms of the location of eigenvalues of the system matrix in the complex plane are given.
The present study was aimed to establish a novel TaqMan real-time PCR (RTm-PCR) for detecting and typing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and also to develop a diagnostic proto- col which simplifies sample collection and processing. Universal primers and TaqMan-MGB probes were designed from the known sequences of conserved 5′ - and 3′-untranslated regions (5’UTR, 3’UTR) of the NADL strain of BVDV. Prior to optimizing the assay, cDNAs were tran- scribed in vitro to make standard curves. The sensitivity, specificity and stability (reproducibility) were evaluated. The RTm-PCR was tested on the 312 feces specimens collected from persistently infected (PI) calves. The results showed the optimum conditions for RTm-PCR were 17.0 μmol/L primer, 7.5 μmol/L probe and 51.4°C annealing temperature. The established TaqMan RTm-PCR assay could specially detect BVDV without detecting any other viruses. Its detection limit was 1.55×100 copies/μL for viral RNA. It was 10000-fold higher than conventional PCR with excel- lent specificity and reproducibility. 312 samples were tested using this method and universal PCR from six dairy farms, respectively. Positive detections were found in 49 and 44 feces samples, respectively. The occurrence rate was 89.80%. In conclusion, the established TaqMan RTm-PCR could rapidly detect BVDV and effectively identify PI cattle. The detection limit of RTm-PCR was 1.55 copies/μL. It will be beneficial for enhancing diagnosis and therapy efficacy and reduce losses in cattle farms.
Time-dependent behavior of rock mass is important for long-term stability analysis in rock engineering. Extensive studies have been carried out on the creep properties and rheological models for variable kinds of rocks, however, the effects of initial damage state on the time-dependent behavior of rock has not yet been taken into consideration. In the present study, the authors proposed a creep test scheme with controlled initial damage to investigate the influence of initial damage on the time-dependent behavior of sandstone. In the test scheme, the initial states of damage were first determined via unloading the specimen from various stresses. Then, the creep test was conducted under different stress levels with specific initial damage. The experimental results show that there is a stress threshold for the initial damage to influence the behavior of the rock in the uniaxial compressive creep tests, which is the stress threshold of dilatancy of rock. When the creep stress is less than the stress threshold, the effect of the initial damage seems to be insignificant. However, if the creep stress is higher than the stress threshold, the initial damage has an important influence on the time-dependent deformation, especially the lateral and volumetric deformation. Moreover, the initial damage also has great influence on the creep failure stress and long-term strength, i.e., higher initial damage leading to lower creep failure stress and long-term strength. The experimental results can provide valuable data for the construction of a creep damage model and long-term stability analysis for rock engineering.
During work, earth-moving machines generate significant levels of noise and vibration that can be harmful for the operators; therefore the analysis of the noise and vibration conditions at the driving position is of great importance for the risk assessment. Compact loaders have become a pressing challenge as they are extremely hazardous referring to noise and vibration emissions, especially in their crawler version where further relevant noise and vibration are generated by the hard contact between track belt and ground. This paper reports the results of investigations carried out on three crawler compact loaders in different operating conditions. The main purpose was to investigate the noise and vibration values transmitted to the operators in some working conditions and use these data to obtain reliable estimates of the exposure to noise, to whole-body and to hand-arm transmitted vibrations, as well as to evaluate the related risk levels. Vibration signals transmitted to the operator were acquired on the seat and the machine control lever in accordance with the procedures specified in ISO 2631-1 and ISO 5349-1. At the same time, noise signals were acquired at the operator’s ear following the procedure reported in ISO 11201. Vibration signals were also acquired on the cabin floor with the main purpose to evaluate the effectiveness of the machine seats in reducing the vibration transmission. Finally, the noise and vibration exposure risks were evaluated on the basis of the health and safety requirements established in 2003/10/EC and 2002/44/EC Directives.
The ultrasonic flowmeter which is described in this paper, measures the transit of time of an ultrasonic pulse. This device consists of two ultrasonic transducers and a high resolution time interval measurement module. An ultrasonic transducer emits a characteristic wave packet (transmit mode). When the transducer is in receive mode, a characteristic wave packet is formed and it is connected to the time interval measurement module inputs. The time interval measurement module allows registration of transit time differences of a few pulses in the packet. In practice, during a single measuring cycle a few time-stamps are registered. Moreover, the measurement process is also synchronous and, by applying the statistics, the time interval measurement uncertainty improves even in a single measurement. In this article, besides a detailed discussion on the principle of operation of the ultrasonic flowmeter implemented in the FPGA structure, also the test results are presented and discussed
The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
The positivity of descriptor continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems with regular pencils are addressed. Such systems can be reduced to standard linear systems and can be decomposed into dynamical and static parts. Two definitions of the positive systems are proposed. It is shown that the definitions are not equivalent. Conditions for the positivity of the systems and the relationship between two classes of positive systems are established. The considerations are illustrated by examples of electrical circuits and numerical examples.