The paper presents the trends of air temperature of the Antarctic. In its elaboration 21 stations were taken into consideration carrying out temperature measurements in the years 19582000, and 34 stations in the years 19812000. After checking the homogeneity of the series by the Alexanderssons (1986) test we found that at 16 stations the homogeneity has been broken. On the basis of the corrected measurement series we have determined the trends in air temperature. In the period 19582000 statistically significant (on 0.95 significance level) temperature increases occurred on the western coast of the Antarctic Peninsula (for example Faraday 0.67°C/10 years) and at the Belgrano and McMurdo stations. The greatest temperature rise was noted on the Antarctic Peninsula during the autumn-winter period. On the South Pole a negative trend in air temperature (0.21°C) occurred, especially in the summer season. During recent years (1981-2000) significant changes took place in the air temperature tendencies in the Antarctic. In many regions of the Antarctic cooling began and on the cost of East Antarctica the temperature decreased by 0.82°C/10 years (Casey). In the interior of the continent also lower and lower temperatures occurred (Amundsen-Scott 0.42°C/10 years, Dome C 0.71°C/10 years). The coast of the Weddell Sea is getting colder (Halley 1.13°C/10 years, Larsen Ice 0.89°C/10 years). An increase in temperature was observed in the interior of West Antarctica (Byrd 0.37°C/10 years). The warming rate of the climate became weaker on the Antarctic Peninsula (Faraday 0.56°C/10 years). The largest temperature changes occurred in the autumn-winter season when in the Antarctic Peninsula region the temperature increased, while in the interior and at the coast of East Antarctica temperatures fell considerably.
Observing the situation in the power industry it is easy to see that there are very deep changes in it. They rely primarily on moving away from conventional energy to renewable energy. This is particularly the case for energy in the European Union. Europe strives to be a forerunner in renewable technologies and a leader in the fight against global warming. The mining industry is being abolished and coal-fired power stations are being displaced by renewable energy sources. This situation is not only a result of EU directives but also of grassroots social initiatives inspired by environmental groups. The new lignite openings are being blocked, due to the lack of public acceptance, and the construction of conventional power plants. They do not help economic arguments for the development of energy based on coal, lignite, fuel that is significantly cheaper than the other, or to provide potential investors with the creation of new jobs. Also, coal investments are suspended in other regions of the world. CoalSwarm coal research shows that 2016 saw a dramatic fall in the amount of coal investment in the world. Even in China and India, where most of the coal industry has developed in recent years, about 100 investments have been suspended. The situation in the US is unclear. Although Barack Obama signed the Paris Agreement, current United States President Donal Trump has spoken out about this agreement and in numerous speeches and is eager to return to the dominant role of coal in the American economy. Poland still maintains the carbon structure of the power industry, but the Minister of Energy has announced that the new block at the Ostrołęka power plant will be the last coal-fired power plant to be built in Poland. This statement allows us to believe that there may be a return to Poland’s energy policy in the nearest future, and the long-awaited document, Poland’s energy policy until 2050, will determine the direction of change for the coming years.
This article reflects some trends and challenges in Germany in connection to immigration. The need of educational and scientific discussion and reflection of migration-specific themes are dictated by the contemporary reality requirements of almost all European countries. Change in society, associated primarily with the processes of immigration, affects the processes and systems of goal-countries, especially the education system.
The paper proposes a list of five „stylized facts”, regarded as the main trends with respect to the development of the global economy in the 20th c. The author’s main purpose is to answer the question whether, in the light of the contemporary growth theory and demographic forecasts, these trends are likely to continue unchanged also in the 21st c. Taking into account this theory and those forecasts, the paper offers forecasts of the average GDP per capita for both the countries of the Technology Frontier Area (TFA) and the catching-up countries. By these forecasts, the strong divergence trend of the last two centuries will be replaced by a strong convergence trend during the 21st c. Moreover, the global rate of growth of the per capita GDP will continue to be high in the first half of the current century, but strongly declining in the second half.
The article presents current state of the structure of hard coal enrichment plants in Poland, taking the capacity, the range of grain enrichment and the type of equipment used into account. This data were presented in a tabular format for each Polish Coal Company operating on the Polish market. The article was also present simplified: flow sheet of the steam and coking coal enrichment system. Based on the presented data, the planned needs and trends were described in terms of increasing production efficiency, minimizing water consumption and safety of work. A list of research and development works which must be undertaken were also presented as well as factors determining the technological development of the processing plants.
Long term changes (46 years) in the a bundance of pygoscelid penguins breeding populations and nests distribution in the Lions Rump (King George Island) colony were investigated in three time intervals, according to previously published two censuses and one original study conducted in 2010. At that time a detailed colony map based on the GIS system was made. Results of this study showed different trends for each investigated species. In the last three decades Adélie penguin breeding populations showed strong declining tendencies (69.61%). In contrast, the population of gentoo penguins represents the reverse trend, increasing 171.85% over the same period. Observed changes in both penguin population sizes are reflected in the different spatial and geographic distribution of their nests. The population changes observed at the Lions Rump colony are consistent with the relevant pygoscelid penguin tendencies in the western Antarctic Peninsula region. Breeding penguin population dynamics at Lions Rump area with a minimal disturbance by human activity may well illustrate a natural response of those birds to environmental changes in the Antarctic.
This study reveals significant and emergent research topics in the field ‘engineering, mechanical’ through bibliometric analysis of articles indexed in Web of Science (WoS) from 1997 to 2016. Publications under consideration (219,191 articles) were examined using quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate general information about publications; evolution of research topics by keyword analysis; performance of countries, research centers and journals; and international collaborations. There was a threefold increase in number of articles throughout the period. The publications were related to 35 WoS categories; and mechanics and thermodynamics were dominating ones. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer was the leading journal in the field. The USA and China were outstanding countries of the field. Collaboration between these countries corresponded to 6.57% of all collaborative publications. Industrialized and developing countries dominated research activities in the field. Indian Institute of Technology was the leading research center due to number of publications. The results showed that heat transfer, finite element method, friction, wear, simulation, and fatigue are important topics of the field. There is an upward trend in research related to nanofluids, microchannel, phase change materials, and carbon nanotubes.
W obliczu rewolucji technologii informatycznych badacze nauk społecznych mają przed sobą nie lada wyzwanie. Oto bowiem wraz ze zwiększającą się popularnością Internetu pojawiły się ogromne ilości danych zawierających opinie, poglądy i zainteresowania jego użytkowników. Chociaż analiza tych danych stawia przed badaczami poważne problemy metodologiczne, za ich użyciem przemawia fascynujący materiał powstający bez ingerencji badaczy. Dużą część tego materiału stanowią dane z najpopularniejszej na świecie wyszukiwarki Google. Co minutę jej użytkownicy ze wszystkich miejsc na świecie zadają ponad 3 miliony zapytań, które są następnie klasyﬁkowane i udostępniane za pomocą aktualizowanych na bieżąco narzędzi. W artykule tym omówione są próby adaptacji tych danych do potrzeb nauk społecznych, a także dotychczasowe badania na ten temat. Omówione są także praktyczne aspekty pracy z narzędziami Google’a: Google Trends oraz Google Keyword Planner. Artykuł jest przeznaczony przede wszystkim dla badaczy nauk społecznych zainteresowanych internetowymi źródłami Big Data oraz wykorzystaniem tych danych w pracy naukowej.
This article addresses the issue of the role of regions, big cities and urban areas in the socio-economic and spatial development trends in the EU as well Poland shaped through – and in connection with the process of globalization and functioning of the Common Market. The analysis of the situation and trends is prepared on the basis of the recent reports and data presented by the EC and OECD and – in case of Poland – Ministry of Investment and Economic Development as well Main Statistical Offi ce. Against this background with the reference to other research work published recently and his own experience the Author formulates a number of proposals for modification of territorially sensitive socio-economic policy in Poland (at national, regional as well urban level).