The small scale green areas, urban parks, urban forests or natural green areas are vital components of the urban structure of cities. This paper, using examples from Bratislava, analyzes the successful and lost opportunities to apply the concept of green space as a strategy for urban regeneration and development, and discusses the ways to incorporate this concept in the teaching and educational practices in the fields of urbanism and landscape architecture.
The development of both the town and the administrative commune of Zielona Góra is characterised by a progressive process of uncontrolled linear urban development, so called urban sprawl. This phenomenon has existed in the town for a long time, but because of the fast development in the 21st century it is now even stronger and has an unfavourable impact on the dwellers’ comfort, communication and accessibility. The directions of changes adopted for spatial development in the current strategic documents of the new town (since 1 January 2015), which came into being as a result of the merger between the town and the rural commune of Zielona Góra, do not guarantee that the unfavourable processes will be stopped. The process of uncontrolled urban development results in the growth of dense urban structures along the roads and communication routes. This prevents an optimum use of areas located further away or behind the existing infrastructure and causes dead zones to appear, where there are no communications or infrastructure. With each new investment (a plot of land with access to a public road, as specified by the regulations) the distance between recreational areas (green spaces) and the town centre increases. The deteriorating dwelling conditions are a direct result of the unfavourable phenomenon of urban sprawl.
State Urban Policy – concept, Institutional scope and structure in integrative management of the development. The management of space, as a common good, closely linked with economic and social development in Poland – meets a number of barriers. One of the major barriers is flawed and inefficient system of spatial planning and the lack of explicit national urban policy. The causes of this situation are manifold and complex. There is a week understanding that spatial planning has regulatory function and that is a main measure of intervention in inefficient – by its nature – market mechanism of real estate development and location of new construction objects. The existing in Poland since 2015 formal document under the title “National City Policy” is in fact the part of cohesion policy. It formulates only very soft policy recommendations concerning spatial development which are identified in different cities and their functional areas, whereas financial measures go separately through sectoral programs. In the article author consider the future place of national urban policy in integrative system of development policy which combine economic, social and build environmental dimensions. Than he analyzes the relationship between national spatial policy and the urban polices at the national and local level. Finally he presents some general conclusions and recommendations. According to the author, because of complexity of the issues and challenges, the detailed formulation of state urban policies and its implementation must lie within the competence of a strong governmental institution (responsible for research, monitoring and evaluation, elaboration of visions and scenarios in a broad global context). The primary partner in the state urban policy, co-responsible for its success, should be adequately, provincial and local governments. Through the cooperation of state and territorial authorities, is the most strongly manifested multilevel model of “public governance”. The special role belongs to the local authorities due to their assigned competence in creation of local by law in respect of land use and building allocation. Efficient urban policy must have two dimensions; horizontal and territorial. Horizontal domain should belong to the state (national planning, passing the law, systemic intervention, etc.). Territorial dimension should belong first of all to local urban policies but formulated and implemented within the framework and measures defined by national spatial policy and operational state urban policies.
Local development, based on the use of endogenous potentials, requires the cooperation of muni-cipalities in urban functional areas (agglomerations). However, conducting joint activities in the area of building and running local development policy is a serious challenge. On the one hand, there is a shortage of experience in this area (not counting the short period of functio-ning municipal unions in the years 1920-1939 and intentional inter-communal relations after 1990). In addition, there are still no legal solutions needed (in addition to the act passed in 2017 for the metropolis of Silesia and Zagłębie). In recent years, however, projects of integra-ted territorial investments and other project partnerships have been implemented under the European Union and the Norwegian Financial Mechanism Programs, which result in prac-tical conclusions and legislative recommendations. The most important of them concern the introduction of a new form of partner cooperation and the adoption of a new urban code. Their quick implementation will enable more eff ective cooperation for development.
The transformation of the former docks in Dublin was one of the major urban regeneration projects in Ireland, which was built during the recent economic boom. Since the start of the project in the nineties, more than six thousand apartments have been built in the area. The construction of the apartments allowed for the diversifi cation of the character of this district into a living quarter. Initially the Docklands were considered as an offi ce district that would serve the Ireland’s service-based economy. New projects also allowed for the development of housing in a close proximity to existing city centre, although it did not happen not without avoiding the gentrifi cation and social polarization of this area. The key role in the process was played by the operator – the urban development agency (Dublin Docklands Development Authority). It acted both as a strategic landowner and the coordinator of the development. The agency was responsible for the delivery of the infrastructure and the sale of the land. The actions of the operator included setting up the of the housing standards, requirements for the development of the infrastructure, both social and technical and public transportation systems. In the hindsight, the agency was praised for the management of the development of such large site. On the other hand, the lack of procedural oversight and a few dubious fi nancial decisions, as well as the other eff ects of the neoliberal policies, such as gentrification, fi nally lower the assessment of DDDA efficiency in that matter. The article summarizes the main aims and achievements of the DDDA’s development policy and its assessment from the long-term perspective of two decades of transformation. This includes the eff ects of the actions in the aftermath of the fi nancial crisis. Such perspective allows to highlight the various stages of the development of the agency and to examine the efficiency and efficacy of these actions.
The article presents basic changes introduced in the first edition of the governmental Urban Planning and Building Code. The changes regard spatial development, especially planning and permit documents, and competences of the governmental bodies in accepting, legislating and issuing such documents. In this respect, the article points out important regulations for the mining industry, in particular for deposit protection and the initiation of mining projects. In certain cases, critical opinions of some of the governmental institutions are mentioned. In a new document regarding the “Spatial Development Study of a Community”, the draft of the Code orders a division of the community into functional zones. Therefore a mining and extractive industry could be delimited as a functional zone. The Code also specifies that while delimiting a new urbanization area, the documented mining deposits areas should be avoided. In relation to the local spatial plan, the Code establishes the following: in documented strategic mining deposit zones the initiation of non-public purpose investments can only be carried out according to the urban spatial plan. This project also orders that only the local spatial plan can allow for the localization of “establishments that carry a risk of serious industrial breakdown” and “investments that can seriously impact the environment”. The Code also introduces another innovation: the possibility of issuing the local spatial plan with an integrated evaluation on the environmental impact. The “investment permits” are intended to replace both the previous building permits and previous decisions on the conditions of development of the areas not covered in the local spatial plans. The investment permits referring to mining establishments will be issued by the mining administration authorities. The main adverse change for mining is that the exploration of mining deposits owned by the State Treasury loses its previous status of public purposes. The article also indicates that some of the described regulations might be changed during the further legislation process.
The text comprises the evaluation of relationship between the qualitative planning tools and the Irish housing policy in the pre-crisis period, during the crisis (2009-2013) and the recovery. The tools that affect housing are understood as spatial planning, including governmental regulations on densification of the development and the housing quality as well as the special tools such as the urban design. Those regulatory tools were deployed with aims to safeguard the sustainable and socially viable housing structures. The Irish case illustrates the considerable innovation in introducing new housing standards and challenges with their efficiency. This can be attributed to the lack of integration with other elements that shaped the market – financing and actions of the private market, low efficiency of planning or the lack of the scale effect for the model developments. Despite their drawbacks these tools are continuously being used, as their foundational principles are still valid.
Urban regeneration is driven by many different engines. These engines, however, in some circumstances may appear to turn to either a success or failure factor. In this context, it is appropriate to analyse how factors that serve the regeneration process are affected by embedding research in a particular paradigm set by the theories of so called “regional development”. The choice of these concepts analysed in the article was the result of literature review. The article consists of four parts. The first part defines the development factors and shows how the concentration of negative phenomena in degraded areas may inhibit their optimal use in the context of the city as a whole. Two subsequent chapters analyse how major theories of regional development picture external and internal factors that influence the development of a specific territory. Then, in the summary the author discusses, how main urban and regional development theories reflect the rationale for mitigating barriers in using local development factors as real driving forces of urban regeneration.
The basic resource of urban planning is space, which as a result of transformation has a direct impact on socio-economic development and quality of life. The author’s purpose was to define planning solutions for urban spatial policy, which can raise the quality of living, especially in the residential environment. In connection with the above, the literature of the subject was analysed and examples of good spatial policy and urban development in the living environment were shown. Particular attention was paid to the planning solutions in Paris and Vienna, as well as to the examples of the new living environment creation in some Scandinavian cities.
The main aim of the research has been to characterise changes the urban functional areas in Poland over 2002–2017 period. The research was based on J.W. Webb’s population development types method enabling to identify links between natural growth and the migration net. A wider analysis concerned components of real increase which, through feedback, influenced level and population dynamics in these areas. Results of the study showed the diversity of demographic processes within Polish urban functional areas as well as in their cores, which will shape different processes in those areas in the future.
Regeneration – an integrated process of activities undertaken in the spatial, social and economic dimensions – should lead to the improvement of the living conditions of inhabitants of degraded urban areas. The European Union in 2007- 2013 allocated financial resources for this purpose in the form of JESSICA initiative which is based on financial engineering mechanism. Experiences gained so far allow conclusions to be drawn that JESSICA is a highly fi nancially-effi cient instrument but, however, not always delivers the desired outcomes in the spatial and social sphere. The scope of projects often is limited to infrastructural investments and does not reflect the complexity of regeneration process. In the article the authors analyse experiences of the five Polish regions with the use of JESSICA, point out main problems and formulate recommendations for sustainable urban policy.
The social, economic and environmental zone is constantly changing in terms of factors aimed at improving the quality of life, economic and technological development of the city while at the same time rational use of resources of the natural environment. Change as a dynamic factor is an impulse for creating new behaviors of residents and interactions between them and public and private sector entities. The article attempts to systematize selected contemporary concepts shaping the city, emphasizing the coherence of their assumptions and the scope of the issues discussed. Looking for features that characterize the city, which balance the needs and expectations of its users.
During the last decades we observe growing importance of cities for socio-economic development, what concern especially larger cities. Currently patterns of socio-economic processes are very diff erent from those registered at the end of XX century. An important role in revival of cities played cohesion policy of European Union. Poland is an example of very well structured settlement system what could be used as an asset to avoid medium development trap for polish economy. In Poland issues of urban policy formulation are much better addressed in last generation of development strategies on central and regional levels.
The paper presents the concept of vital cities in the context of mechanisms of sustainable development, networking and creativity. The vital city was presented as: - a city belonging to the inhabitants – a city managed and developed with advanced processes of participation, - a city of reasonable management – a city that uses and at the same time protects its key potentials, - a city of creation – a city of creating and implementing new ideas, - a city of opportunities – a city that creates the conditions for the use of energy and creativity residents, - a city in the surround – a city with a strong position in the environment.
The paper attempted to define the basis of city transformations that conform to the smart concept. The objective of the paper is to relate the concept of a smart city, which is quite frequently discussed in literature related to the subject, with functioning and development of the city’s economy, in a way that would allow monitoring economic processes taking place in the city, and also to find a response to the question as to the extent to which the smart city creates a new city economy. Does it expand the city economy by new elements, generate new economic mechanisms, allow the implementation of growth paths different than those to date? This objective is particularised by a description of selected issues of urban economics. With this in mind the paper discusses an approach to managing supply and demand on the basis of theoretical assumptions defined by Mudie and Cottam (1993) transposed on realities connected with provision of municipal public services in conditions of a smart city. Furthermore, sample solutions were presented related to the smart city, which reflect theoretical conclusions contained in the paper. The paper ends with a presentation of logics related to growing economy in a smart city. The economy of a smart city, ultimately an intelligent economy of the city, is created in a laminar way. Under the pressure of technological, social and political surroundings the city is permeated by social and culture intelligence, forming gradually a new economic quality. In the paper we emphasised that the concept of a smart city still remains a question of the future to a much bigger extent than one of the present time. A smart city slowly emerges from the combination of diverse megatrends and development trends characteristic for communities and economies of the second decade of the 21st century.
A number of thorough studies characterizing national and regional innovation systems have been published over the last years but what is relatively new is the theme of local innovation systems. In the era of increasing emphasis on urban issues in the development policies of countries and organizations such as the European Union and the location of innovation in the centre of regional development debate, it is justifi ed to ask how the measures are directed to the provincial cities. The article concentrates on 5 voivodeship cities as the main centers of regions with the highest number of institutions that usually build local innovation systems, three of which are located in the less developed regions in Poland.
This article addresses the issue of the role of regions, big cities and urban areas in the socio-economic and spatial development trends in the EU as well Poland shaped through – and in connection with the process of globalization and functioning of the Common Market. The analysis of the situation and trends is prepared on the basis of the recent reports and data presented by the EC and OECD and – in case of Poland – Ministry of Investment and Economic Development as well Main Statistical Offi ce. Against this background with the reference to other research work published recently and his own experience the Author formulates a number of proposals for modification of territorially sensitive socio-economic policy in Poland (at national, regional as well urban level).
This article takes up the matter of contemporary threats to cities and urbanity, setting the problems cities face today against the background of the two categories of the resilient city and the city developing sustainably. The author describes and presents the evolution of the sustainable development concept as such, as well as the generational change in priorities that has taken place where the development of urbanised areas is concerned, given the way the concept has undergone a certain devaluation, in the light of its failure to achieve fulfi lment. The challenges cities face today require multi-faceted activity, in respect of increased inclusivity, robustness and resilience, and flexibility. This leaves today’s idea of the resilient city embracing old elements of the sustainable city, but also augmenting them in various ways.
The article discusses selected issues concerning both the activities and the contents of Strategy Cracow 2030 – An Ambitious Plan of the City Where Life Can Be Enjoyed. The author analyses how selected concepts well known in the local and regional development policy literature and practice such as territorial capital, second-tier city, integrated territorial planning and metropolisation are refl ected in the key development planning document of the second-largest Polish city. The strategy was adopted by the City Council in February 2018. The article focuses in particular on the applied work method, based on an advanced partnership and cooperation of key stakeholders, assumptions adopted in the strategy and axiology, identified challenges and development resources, and metropolitan city aspirations. The author also discusses selected issues regarding implementation system of the strategy.
The article presents the concept of intelligent city. Cities are unquestionably central to many topics in economics and regional science: the business location, the driving forces for business, the economic growth factors, externalities and amenities, knowledge spillovers and knowledge hubs. But what, exactly, is city in this context. This paper argues that today city should be seen more as an intelligent economic system allowing the utilisation of economic and public value than a technology- rich and smartly managed place. Thinking about cities through this particular lens allows insights from a variety of fields – including public services analysis in urban economics, regional science studies and business studies in economic geography – to be applied. This opens new approaches to issues such as institutional and territorial origins of governance processes.
During studying and mathematical description of the trends of urbanized territories development as ecological and town-planning systems there were several vague similarities founded between its major parameters change periodicity and other physical values, having undulatory nature. Obtained counterparts had predetermined interest for search of fundamental basics of urbanization. It turned out that all laws of Nature has the same basis – power permanence rule. This law is known in philosophy as principle of «change of unchangeable», in ecology – as a law of ecosystem self-regulation, in accordance to which at conditions of insufficient occupancy of the territory the population amount growths, and at conditions of over-occupancy it decreases. According to research, also development attributable to the dynamics of urbanized territories is noticeable, in which all the four types of physical interactions are expressed to a certain degree. These and other results of research have allowed to articulate the main principles of ecological space «urban physics» content, which have proven to be coordinated with the postulates of new single field physics (Bishkek version). The above-mentioned have allowed to lay down the theoretical foundation for an occurrence of a new branch in the science of townplanning i.e. wave urbanistics, as a science of management by unduly processes of territories development in order to provide a conditions of their sustainable development.
The article aims to present the scope of influence of Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI) on the sustainable development of urban functional areas (FUAs) in Poland. Against the background of the general principles of the implementation of the both instruments, practical aspects of the implementation of ITI in FUAs have been presented. Detailed analyses in the financial and spatial aspect were carried out using the Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI). These provided the basis for presenting the practical aspect of supporting the sustainable development of urban functional areas in the EU Cohesion Policy 2014–2020.