The objective of the article is to examine the approximative and adjustive uses of the verb dire, which is mostly regarded as an assertive and eventful verb; hence nonapproximative. Meanwhile, in many expressions, in an impersonal use, in negation when the subjunctive mode is used, in the conditional forms, its evidence value is weakened and the verb dire can express approximation. The study is situated in light of the enunciation theory, notably it refers to a notion of modalisation. The corpus was established on the basis of dictionaries, which are representative for normative uses, but we will refer as well to press texts, particularly interviews, where the verb say is frequently used as a marker of the position of the speaker.
The paper presents an analysis of the grammatical function of the German perfect tense form by encoding the “real” times. The theoretical base provides a combination of two separate concepts, i.e. Reichenbach’s and Weinrich’s model, and is an attempt to combine them into one, prototypical model. As an additional criterion, the classification according to Vendler is introduced, because one of the goals of the paper is also to examine the use of auxiliary verbs haben-have and sein-be in verbal periphrases depending on their Aktionsart, or type of activity.