Research activities of Polish research groups in a period of 2015–2019 on reference frames and reference networks are reviewed and summarised in this paper. The summary contains the results concerning the implementation of latest resolutions on reference systems of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Union of Astronomy with special emphasis on the changes in the Astronomical Almanac of the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw. It further presents the status of the implementation of the European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) in Poland, monitoring the terrestrial reference frame, operational work of GNSS permanent IGS/EPN stations in Poland, operational work of the laser ranging station in Poland of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), active GNSS station network for the realization of ETRS89 in Poland, validation of recent ETRS89 realization, expressed in ETRF2000 in Poland, and maintenance of the vertical control in Poland (PL-KRON86-NH). Extensive research activities are observed in the field of maintenance and modernization of gravity control not only in Poland, but also in Sweden and in Denmark, as well as establishment of gravity control in Ireland based on absolute gravity survey. The magnetic control in Poland was also regularly maintained. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.
The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011–2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.
In monitoring vertical displacements in elongated structures (e.g. bridges, dams) by means of precise geometric levelling a reference base usually consists of two subgroups located on both ends of a monitored structure. The bigger the separation of the subgroups, the greater is the magnitude of undetectable displacement of one subgroup with respect to the other. With a focus on a method of observation differences the question arises which of the two basic types of computation datum, i.e. the elastic and the fixed, both applicable in this method, is more suitable in such a specific base configuration. To support the analysis of this problem, general relationships between displacements computed in elastic datum and in fixed datum are provided. They are followed by auxiliary relationships derived on the basis of transformation formulae for different computational bases in elastic datum. Furthermore, indices of base separation are proposed which can be helpful in the design of monitoring networks. A test network with simulated mutual displacements of the base subgroups, is used to investigate behaviour of the network with the fixed and the elastic datum being applied. Also, practical guidelines are given concerning data processing procedures for such specific monitoring networks. For big separation of base subgroups a non-routine procedure is recommended, aimed at facilitating specialist interpretation of monitoring results.