This paper present the results of experimental investigations of condensation of R134a refrigerant in pipe minichannels with internal diameters 0.64, 0.90, 1.40, 1.44, 1.92 and 3.30 mm subject to periodic pressure instabilities. It was established that as in conventional channels, the displacement velocity of the pressure instabilities distinctly depends on the frequency of their hydrodynamic generation. The void fraction distinctly influences the velocity of the pressure instabilities. The form of this relationship depends on the internal diameter of the minichannels and on the method of calculating the void fraction.
The paper presents the application of liquid crystal thermography for temperature determination and visualisation of two phase flow images on the studied surface. Properties and applications of thermochromic liquid crystals are discussed. Liquid crystals were applied for two-dimensional detection of the temperature of the heating foil forming one of the surfaces of the minichannel along which the cooling liquid flowed. The heat flux supplied to the heating surface was altered in the investigation and it was accompanied by a change in the color distribution on the surface. The accuracy of temperature measurements on the surface with liquid crystal thermography is estimated. The method of visualisation of two-phase flow structures is described. The analysis of monochrome images of flow structures was employed to calculate the void fraction for some cross-sections. The flow structure photos were processed using Corel graphics software and binarized. The analysis of phase volumes employed Techsystem Globe software. The measurement error of void fraction is estimated.
Technology advancements entail a necessity to remove huge amounts of heat produced by today’s electronic devices based on highly integrated circuits, major generators of heat. Heat transfer to boiling liquid flowing through narrow minichannels is a modern solution to the problem of heat transfer enhancement. The study was conducted for FC-72 boiling in a rectangular, vertical and asymmetrically heated minichannel that had depths of 0.5-1.5 mm, a width of 20 mm and a length of 360 mm. The heat flux increased and decreased within the range of 58.3-132.0 kWm−2, the absolute pressure ranged from 0.116 to 0.184 MPa and the mass flux was 185-1139.2 kgm−2s−1. The boiling process took place on a flat vertical heating surface made of Haynes-230 0.1 mm thick acid-proof rolled plate with the surface roughness of 121 μm.
The void fraction is one of the most important parameters characterizing a multiphase flow. The prediction of the performance of any system operating with more than single phase relies on our knowledge and ability to measure the void fraction. In this work, a validated simulation study was performed in order to predict the void fraction independent of the flow pattern in gas-liquid two-phase flows using a gamma ray 60Co source and just one scintillation detector with the help of an artificial neural network (ANN) model of radial basis function (RBF). Three used inputs of ANN include a registered count under Compton continuum and counts under full energy peaks of 1173 and 1333 keV. The output is a void fraction percentage. Applying this methodology, the percentage of void fraction independent of the flow pattern of a gas-liquid two-phase flow was estimated with a mean relative error less than 1.17%. Although the error obtained in this study is almost close to those obtained in other similar works, only one detector was used, while in the previous studies at least two detectors were employed. Advantages of using fewer detectors are: cost reduction and system simplification.
The effect of the initial porosity on the material response under multi-axial stress state for S235JR steel using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) material model was examined. Three levels of initial porosity, defined by the void volume fraction f₀, were considered: zero porosity for fully dense material without pores, average and maximum porosity according to the metallurgical requirements for S235JR steel. The effect of the initial porosity on the material response was noticed for tensile elements under multi-axial stress state defined by high stress triaxiality σₘ/σe = 1.345. This effect was especially noticeable at the range of the material failure. In terms of the load-bearing capacity of the elements, the conservative results were obtained when maximum value of f₀ = 0.0024 was used for S235JR steel under multi-axial stress state, and this value is recommended to use in the calculations in order to preserve the highest safety level of the structure. In usual engineering calculations, the average porosity defined by f₀ = 0.001 may be applied for S235JR.