No one could have expected that on the first day that LIGO detectors were running, scientists would register signals of gravitational waves. We discuss the watershed discovery confirming the general theory of relativity with Dr. Andrzej Królak from the PAS Institute of Mathematics and Dr. Michał Bejger from the PAS Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centre, both members of the Virgo-POLGRAW group.
We talk to Professor Andrzej Trautman, Full Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Emeritus Professor at the University of Warsaw, about the consequences of the general theory of relativity, the theoretical foundations of gravitational waves and the difficulties in proving their existence.
This paper endeavours to study aspects of wave propagation in a random generalized-thermal micropolar elastic medium. The smooth perturbation technique conformable to stochastic differential equations has been employed. Six different types of waves propagate in the random medium. The dispersion equations have been derived. The effects due to random variations of micropolar elastic and generalized thermal parameters have been computed. Randomness causes change of phase speed and attenuation of waves. Attenuation coefficients for high frequency waves have been computed. Second moment properties have been briefly discussed with application to wave propagation in the random micropolar elastic medium. Integrals involving correlation functions have been transformed to radial forms. A special type of generalized thermo-mechanical auto-correlation functions has been used to approximately compute effects of random variations of parameters. Uncoupled problem has been briefly outlined.
The article describes the method of controlling the recovered grade based on measuring the intensity of volume ultrasonic oscillations and Lamb waves covering a fixed distance through the test medium and on a metal plate contacting the test medium at various time points of deliberate motion of ground materials. The authors suggest a method of determining density of ground ore particles in the pulp periodically after isolating the pulp flow in the vertical part of the measuring vessel based on measuring attenuation change values in Lamb waves covering a fixed distance on a plate contacting the medium under study and high frequency volume ultrasonic oscillations that have come through it within a certain time period. There are given dependencies of amplitudes of measuring channels based on volume ultrasonic oscillations and surface Lamb waves, size distribution according to solid phase pulp particles for various types of ores under study, a set of curves for determining the recovered grade with regard to various types of ores under study.
Mapping storm activity across the globe at time scales ranging from minutes to years is an important element of measuring and forecasting climate change. The WERA system is being used to verify models of the influence of various types of solar activity on the lower layers of the ionosphere. We hope that one day it can also be used on Mars.
Bragg scattering of waves propagating in a periodically disturbed substrate is widely applied in optics and micro-acoustic systems. Here, it is studied for Rayleigh waves propagating on a periodically grooved elastic substrate. Practically applied groove depth in the Bragg grating reflectors does not exceed a few percent of the Rayleigh wavelength. Here, the analysis is carried out for periodic grooves of larger depth by applying the elastic plate model for the groove walls. The computed results show that the surface wave existence and reflection depends strongly on both the groove depth and period, and that there are limited domains of both for practical applications, primarily in comb transducers of surface waves.
Comb transducers are applied in ultrasonic testing for generation of Rayleigh or Lamb waves by scattering of the incident bulk waves onto surface waves at the periodic comb-substrate interface. Hence the transduction efficiency, although rarely discussed in literature, is an important factor for applications determining the quality of the measured ultrasonic signals. This paper presents the full-wave theory of comb transducers concluded by evaluation of their efficiency for a couple of examples of standard and certain novel configurations.
In this paper, effects of non-Fourier thermal wave interactions in a thin film have been investigated. The non-Fourier, hyperbolic heat conduction equation is solved, using finite difference method with an implicit scheme. Calculations have been carried out for three geometrical configurations with various film thicknesses. The boundary condition of a symmetrical temperature step-change on both sides has been used. Time history for the temperature distribution for each investigated case is presented. Processes of thermal wave propagation, temperature peak build-up and reverse wave front creation have been described. It has been shown that (i) significant temperature overshoot can appear in the film subjected to symmetric thermal load (which can be potentially dangerous for reallife application), and (ii) effect of temperature amplification decreases with increased film thickness.
The aim of this publication is to design a procedure for the synthesis of an IDT (interdigital transducer) with diluted electrodes. The paper deals with the surface acoustic waves (SAW) and the theory of synthesis of the asymmetrical delay line with the interdigital transducer with diluted electrodes. The authors developed a theory, design, and implementation of the proposed design. They also measured signals. The authors analysed acoustoelectronic components with SAW: PLF 13, PLR 40, delay line with PAV 44 PLO. The presented applications have a potential practical use.
The objective of this research is to determine the impact of waves on the segregation of sediment within the area of its supply in the context of meteorological conditions. The research was conducted on a 4 km section of the shore of Calypsostranda (Bellsund, West Spitsbergen), shaped by waves such as swell, wind waves, and tides. Particular attention was paid to the diversity and variability of the surface texture within the intertidal zone. Meteorological measurements, recording of wave climate, as well as analysis of the grain-size distribution of the beach sediments were performed. Nearshore bathymetry, longshore drifts, episodic sediment delivery from land, as well as resistance of the shore to coastal erosion and direction of transport of sediments in the shore zone are important factors controlling shore development. Data show that wind waves contribute to erosion and discharge of material from the nearshore and intertidal zone. The research also shows that oceanic swell, altered by diffraction, reaching the shore of Calypsostranda contributes to better sorting of sediment deposited on the shore through washing it out from among gravels, and longshore transport of its finest fraction. The grain size distribution of shore sediments is significantly changed already during one tidal cycle. The degree of this modification depends not only on wave height and period but on the direction of wave impact. The shore of Calypsostranda can be regarded as transitional between high and low energy coasts.
Ground temperature variations have been analysed to the depth of 160 cm, with respect to meteorological elements and short-wave radiation balance. The database of the ground temperature covers a thirteen month-long period (May 1992 – June 1993), which included both the seasons of complete freezing of the ground and thaw. Special attention has been given to the development of perennial permafrost and its spatial distribution. In summer, the depth of thawing ground varied in different types of ground — at the Polish Polar Station, this was ca. 130 cm. The ground froze completely in the first week of October. Its thawing started in June. The snow cover restrained heat penetration in the ground, which hindered the ground thawing process. Cross-correlation shows a significant influence of the radiation balance (K*) on the values of near-surface ground temperatures (r2 = 0.62 for summer).
Receiver function provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and the information about the shear wave (S−wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. This information is very valuable in areas where any or few reflection and/or refraction studies are available and global and/or regional models give only rough information about the seismic velocities. The data recorded by broadband seismic stations have been analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of the Svalbard Archipelago. Svalbard Archipelago is a group of islands located in Arctic, at the north−western part of the Barents Sea continental platform, which is bordered to the west and to the north by passive continental margins. The new procedure of parameterization and selection of receiver functions (RFs) has been proposed. The back−azimuthal sections of RF show a strong variation for the HSPB and KBS stations. Significant amplitudes of transversal component of RF (T−RF) for the HSPB station indicate a shallow dipping layer towards the southwest. The structure of the crust beneath the SPITS array seems to be less heterogeneous, with very low amplitudes of converted phase comparing to the KBS and HSPB stations. Forward modelling by trial−and−error method shows a division of the crust into 3–4 layers beneath all stations and layering of the uppermost mantle beneath the SPITS array and the HSPB stations. The thickness of the mantle transition zone is larger for western part of archipelago and smaller for eastern part comparing to iasp91 model.
Selected results of investigations concerning a shallow water part of the coastal zone, covering the surf zone and the swash zone, are presented. The above research has been carried out by means of field measurements, as well as data-driven and theoretical modelling. The investigations have led to development of a mathematical model of wave transformation and run-up on the shore in the Lagrangian system, as well as identification of infragravity waves (edge waves) in the multi-bar morphological beach system and their linkage with rhythmic shoreline forms (cusps). Some empirical relationships have been obtained for the description of number of bars in a bar system and dissipation of wave energy over such morphological structure. The experimental findings are based on field studies carried out at the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station (CRS) in Lubiatowo.
The aim of the paper is a theoretical analysis of propagation of high-intensity acoustic waves throughout a bubble layer. A simple model in the form of a layer with uniformly distributed mono-size spherical bubbles is considered. The mathematical model of the pressure wave’s propagation in a bubbly liquid layer is constructed using the linear non-dissipative wave equation and assuming that oscillations of a single bubble satisfy the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The models of the phase sound speed, changes of resonant frequency of bubbles and damping coefficients in a bubbly liquid are compared and discussed. The relations between transmitted and reflected waves and their second harmonic amplitudes are analyzed. A numerical analysis is carried out for different environmental parameters such as layer thicknesses and values of the volume fraction as well as for different parameters of generated signals. Examples of results of the numerical modeling are presented.
Transmission of vibroacoustic energy from an internal combustion engine (ICE) to its surroundings largely depends on how it is mounted, on available transmission paths and on the construction of the vehicle body and/or its surrounding structures. This is especially true in low speed engines in enclosed areas which generate perceptually weak noise, but strong low-frequency waves which energy has a negative impact on human health, comfort and driving safety especially in prolonged exposure to the source. The primary aim of the article was to analyse components of the ICE unit which had a determining impact on the reduction of low-frequency waves. Thus, the structurally transmitted noise from the ICE to its surrounding structure (body of the passenger vehicle) was analysed. The results of the vibroacoustic measurements were compared to modal analysis in order to determine possible resonance sources in the vehicle body and/or for assessing the influence of the vehicles safety gear on the generated vibroacoustic energy transfer into the cabin area of the passenger vehicle. Measurements were made for a passenger vehicle at rest and operating in its most common operational speed as well as for the stationary ICE of a cogenerate unit (CGU). Measurements and FFT analysis were used for the detection of the vibroacoustic energy sound pressure level (noise) and mechanical vibration. Firstly, the low-frequency noise sources were determined and their direct effects on the human body were investigated. Finally, this paper suggests some measures which may contribute to the reduction of undesirable vibroacoustic energy in enclosed areas.
Longitudinal and shear ultrasonic wave velocities were measured versus temperature in the viscosity standards of Paragon S8000S, N30000S and Cannon N2700000. The measurements were performed by the through-transmission method at the frequency of 2 MHz. Ultrasonic pulses were sent via polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) waveguides between the tips of which a small amount of the particular standard liquid was placed. The velocities of longitudinal and shear waves were determined to depend on the viscosity of the liquid and increase with the viscosity.
Wave-Based Control has been previously applied successfully to simple underactuated flexible mechanical systems. Spacecraft and rockets with structural flexibility and sloshing are examples of such systems but have added difficulties due to nonuniform structure, external disturbing forces and non-ideal actuators and sensors. The aim of this paper is to extend the application of WBC to spacecraft systems, to compare the performance of WBC to other popular controllers and to carry out experimental validation of the designed control laws. A mathematical model is developed for an upper stage accelerating rocket moving in a single plane. Fuel sloshing is represented by an equivalent mechanical pendulum model. A wave-based controller is designed for the upper stage AVUM of the European launcher Vega. In numerical simulations the controller successfully suppresses the sloshing motion. A major advantage of the strategy is that no measurement of the pendulum states (sloshing motion) is required.
In this paper a possibility of determining a local velocity of the surface acoustic Rayleigh waves using a transducer, with the rigidly connected emitting and receiving parts, is considered. A problem on spatial resolution of such a transducer for investigation of inhomogeneous specimens is also examined. A high spatial resolution can be obtained due to the transducer displacement by a value less than the distance between the emitting and receiving parts. It is shown that in this case it is not necessary to measure the transducer displacement with a high accuracy for precise determination of the velocity. Such an effect is obtained through measuring the velocity of surface waves in one local region of the specimen with respect to the other. The criterion for optimal spatial resolution selection during spatially inhomogeneous specimens study is also proposed. The proposed criterion use is illustrated on the example of the determination of spatial distribution of the surface acoustic velocity in a steel specimen subjected to inhomogeneous plastic deformation.
This paper presents an analysis of use of ultrasonic standing wave in cell separation from bodily fluids based on the example of erythrocyte separation from plasma. It describes movement of red blood cells in plasma under the influence of the acoustic field (whose forces result from interaction of red blood cells with plasma as the vibrating medium) and under the influence of resistance forces in Stokes’ and Oseen’s approximation. The general properties of solutions of the motion equation are given. The solutions for the parameters of the ultrasonic wave and blood cells which are interesting in terms of practical applications in medical diagnostics are discussed. Time constants of the cell transportation to the regions of stable equilibrium in the field of ultrasonic standing wave are estimated. The formulas which determine the time needed to obtain the assumed concentration increase in plasma in nodes and/or anti-nodes of the standing wave are derived.
Typically applied static (i.e. non-agitated) cultures do not provide sufficient conditions for efficient propagation of suspended non-adherent cells, in general. Feasibility of small-scale wave-type agitated single-use bioreactors for gentle agitation underlies applicability of such systems for scaling-up of fragile biomass of animal cells. The basic aim of the study was to compare the results of non-adherent HL-60 cell propagation performed referentially as the batch culture in typical static (i.e. non-agitated) disposable culture flasks (50 cm3 of culture medium) and in ReadyToProcess WAVETM25 bioreactor system (GE Healthcare) equipped with disposable culture bag (300 cm3 of culture medium) subjected to continuous wave-type agitation. The density and viability of HL-60 cells were significantly higher for the bioprocess subjected to wave-type agitation, than in the reference static culture. The values of the specific rate of glucose consumption per cell (rglc=cell) exhibited by HL-60 cells maintained in the system with continuous wave-type agitation was significantly lower (i.e. up to more than 42%) than the values noted for the static culture, for exactly the same time-points of two compared cultures. The results of the studies undoubtedly and comprehensively confirmed the applicability of the studied disposable bioreactor with wave-induced agitation as the right platform for proceeding the propagation of non- adherent HL-60 cells and for providing the culture conditions required by HL-60 cells for sustainable metabolism.
The nonlinear interaction of wave and non-wave modes in a gas planar flow are considered. Attention is mainly paid to the case when one sound mode is dominant and excites the counter-propagating sound mode and the entropy mode. The modes are determined by links between perturbations of pressure, density, and fluid velocity. This definition follows from the linear conservation equations in the differential form and thermodynamic equations of state. The leading order system of coupling equations for interacting modes is derived. It consists of diffusion inhomogeneous equations. The main aim of this study is to identify the principle features of the interaction and to establish individual contributions of attenuation (mechanical and thermal attenuation) in the solution to the system.