Recent studies in the area of biological air treatment in filters have addressed fundamental key issues, such as a biofilter bed of different origin composed of natural zeolite granules, foam cubes and wood chips. When foam and zeolite are mixed with wood chips to remove volatile organic compounds from the air, not only biological but also adsorption air purification methods are accomplished. The use of complex purification technologies helps to improve the efficiency of a filter as well as the bed service life of the filter bed. Investigations revealed that microorganisms prevailing in biological purification, can also reproduce themselves in biofilter beds of inorganic and synthetic origin composed of natural zeolite and foam. By cultivating associations of spontaneous microorganisms in the filter bed the dependencies of the purification efficiency of filter on the origin, concentration and filtration time of injected pollutants were determined. The highest purification efficiency was obtained when air polluted with acetone vapour was supplied to the equipment at 0.1 m/s of superficial gas velocity. When cleaning air from volatile organic compounds (acetone, toluene and butanol), under the initial pollutant concentration of ~100 mg/m3, the filter efficiency reached 95 %.
The issue of mercury emission and the need to take action in this direction was noticed in 2013 via the Minamata Convention. Therefore, more and more often, work and new law regulations are commencing to reduce this chemical compound from the environment. The paper presents the problem of removing mercury from waste gases due to new BREF/BAT restrictions, in which the problem of the need to look for new, more efficient solutions to remove this pollution was also indicated. Attention is paid to the problem of the occurrence of mercury in the exhaust gases in the elemental form and the need to carry out laboratory tests. A prototype installation for the sorption of elemental mercury in a pure gas stream on solid sorbents is presented. The installation was built as part of the LIDER project, financed by the National Center for Research and Development in a project entitled: “The Application of Waste Materials From the Energy Sector to Capture Mercury Gaseous Forms from Flue Gas”. The installation is used for tests in laboratory conditions in which the carrier gas of elemental mercury is argon. The first tests on the zeolite sorbent were made on the described apparatus. The tested material was synthetic zeolite X obtained as a result of a two-stage reaction of synthesis of fly ash type C with sodium hydroxide. Due to an increase, the chemical affinity of the tested material in relation to mercury, the obtained zeolite material was activated with silver ions (Ag+) by an ion exchange using silver nitrate (AgNO3). The first test was specified for a period of time of about 240 minutes. During this time, the breakthrough of the tested zeolite material was not recorded, and therefore it can be concluded that the tested material may be promising in the development of new solutions for capturing mercury in the energy sector. The results presented in this paper may be of interest to the energy sector due to the solution of several environmental aspects. The first of them is mercury sorption tests for the development of new exhaust gases treatment technologies. On the other hand, the second aspect raises the possibility of presenting a new direction for the management and utilization of combustion by-products such as fly ash.
The insecticidal efficiency of Ag-loaded 4A-zeolite (ZAg) and its formulations with Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (RO) was evaluated against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). For comparison, different rates of ZAg (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g ⋅ kg–1 wheat) were used solely and in a combination with LC50 concentrations of RO. Mortality was assessed after 7, 14, and 21 days of insect exposure to treated wheat. The progeny production was also evaluated. The use of ZAg accomplished a complete mortality (100%) on S. oryzae and 96.67% on R. dominica as well as 100% mortality of progeny against the two insect species after the longest exposing duration (21 days), at the highest rate (1 g ⋅ kg–1). On the other hand, the complete mortalities of ZAg formulations on S. oryzae were obtained after 14 d of treatment with F1 formulation (0.605 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 0.25 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) and after 7 days with the other tested formulations. In addition, the complete mortality on R. dominica was obtained only by F8 (0.059 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 1 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) formulation after 14 days of treatment. Concerning the efficiency of the examined formulations on the progeny of S. oryzae, F1 (0.605 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 0.25 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) and F2 (0.605 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 0.5 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) formulations recorded 100% mortality. In addition, F3 (0.605 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 0.75 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) and F4 (0.605 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 1 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) formulations suppressed the progeny production. Furthermore, the complete mortality of R. dominica progeny was obtained with F7 (0.059 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 0.75 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) and F8 (0.059 g ⋅ kg–1 RO + 1 g ⋅ kg–1 ZAg) formulations. ZAg, especially its formulations with R. officinalis oil, had potential effects against two stored-product insects. F1 and F8 formulations could be treated efficiently on S. oryzae and R. dominica, respectively.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a compound responsible for the greenhouse effect. One of the methods of CO2 capture from the gas stream is adsorption process. In this paper, the adsorption equilibrium isotherms of CO2 on zeolite 13X were measured at different temperatures (293.15 K, 303.15 K, 313.15 K, 323.15 K, 333.15 K, 348.15 K, 373.15 K, 393.15 K) and under pressures up to 2 MPa. These data were obtained using an Intelligent Gravimetric Analyzer (IGA-002, Hiden Isochema, UK). Selected multitemperature adsorption isotherm equations, namely Toth, Langmuir–Freundlich, and, Langmuir were correlated with experimental data.
The adsorption of lead ions onto a zeolite bearing tuff (stilbite) from synthetic acid aqueous solution and acid mine drainage taken from Sasa mine, Macedonia, is elaborated in this paper. The results present that adsorption occurs effi ciently in both of cases. The physical and chemical properties of the used natural material, zeolite bearing tuff, are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy. The concentration of metal ions in solution before and after treatment is obtained by AES-ICP. The effectivity of zeolite bearing tuff is determined through a series of experiments under batch conditions from single ion solutions, whereby the main parameters are the effects of initial pH of solution, mass of adsorbent, initial metal concentration in solution, contacting time and competing cations. The maximum capacity of zeolite bearing tuff for removal of lead ions from solution is determined by equilibrium studies. The experimental obtained data are fi tted with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models. The experimental data are better fi tted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Zeolite bearing tuff is effective adsorbent for treating acid mine drainage. The results showed that 99% of lead ions are removed from acid mine drainage, i.e. the concentration of lead ions from 0.329 mg/dm3 decrease to 0.002 mg/dm3 . The pH value of acid mine drainage from 3.90 after treatment with zeolite bearing tuff increases to 5.36.