A method of suppressing chaotic oscillations in a tubular reactor with mass recycle is discussed. The method involves intervention in the temperature of the input flow by the recirculation flow and the temperature set from the exterior. The most advantageous solution was proved to be heat coupling elimination and maintenance of the reactor input temperature on the set level. Moreover, the reactor modelwas identified on the basis of a chaotic solution, as it provides the biggest entropy of information.
Lipogranulomas are lesions found in histopathological liver examination in humans and in various animal species, including dogs, especially those with portosystemic shunts. They consist of macrophages and other inflammatory cells, and sometimes they contain iron salts (pigment granuloma). This study aimed at determining the number of granulomas and cellular composition of lipogranulomas in dogs with the congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and to identify factors associated with their development. 44 archival liver samples from dogs with portosystemic shunt were stained using HE, Perl’s method and – in randomly-selected cases – immunohistochemically against CD56, CD20 and CD3 (DAKO). A reduction in the size of the liver was observed in all dogs during laparotomy, and the diameter of the vessel circumventing the liver was also measured (in 24 dogs). Lipogranulomas were found in 52.3% of samples; iron salts were present in 47.8% of them; 72% of cells in lipogranulomas were macrophages. In lipogranulomas both types of lymphocytes – T and B – were seen. The presence of lipogranulomas in liver samples in dogs was connected with fatty degeneration of hepatocytes and was correlated with the age of animals and with the diameter of the abnormal vessel circumventing the liver. Their formation appears to be triggered by severe ischemia and shortage of nutrient supply.
Solitary corals of the genus Flabellum are described from the Lower Oligocene glaciomarine strata of the Polonez Cove Formation of King George Island, West Antarctica. This is the oldest record of the genus from Antarctica.
The objective of this work was to generate a series of equations to describe the voltinism of Lobesia botrana in the quarantine area of the main winemaking area of Argentina, Mendoza. To do this we considered an average climate scenario and extrapolated these equations to other winegrowing areas at risk of being invaded. A grid of 4 km2 was used to generate statistics on L. botrana captures and the mean temperature accumulation for the pixel. Four sets of logistic regression were constructed using the percentage of accumulated trap catches/grid/week and the degree-day accumulation above 7°C, from 1st July. By means of a habitat model, an extrapolation of the phenological model generated to other Argentine winemaking areas was evaluated. According to our results, it can be expected that 50% of male adult emergence for the first flight occurs at 248.79 ± 4 degree-days (DD), in the second flight at 860.18 ± 4.1 DD, while in the third and the fourth flights, 1671.34 ± 5.8 DD and 2335.64 ± 4.3 DD, respectively. Subsequent climatic comparison determined that climatic conditions of uncolonized areas of Cuyo Region have a similar suitability index to the quarantine area used to adjust the phenological model. The upper valley of Río Negro and Neuquén are environmentally similar. Valleys of the northwestern region of Argentina showed lower average suitability index and greater variability among SI estimated by the algorithm considered. The combination of two models for the estimation of adult emergence time and potential distribution, can provide greater certainties in decision-making and risk assessment of invasive species.