We present a new hash function based on irregularly decimated chaotic map, in this article. The hash algorithm called SHAH is based on two Tinkerbell maps filtered with irregular decimation rule. We evaluated the novel function using distribution analysis, sensitivity analysis, static analysis of diffusion, static analysis of confusion, and collision analysis. The experimental data show that SHAH satisfied valuable level of computer security.
Here we use synchrotron tomography to characterise dental vasculature in the oldest known tooth-bearing sharks, Leonodus carlsi Mader, 1986 and Celtiberina maderi Wang, 1993. Three dimensional reconstruction of the vascular system and microstructure of both taxa revealed a complex and dense network of canals, including horizontal, ascending and secondary bifurcated canals, as well as histological features consistent with an osteodont histotype. However, L. carlsi and C. maderi also exhibit significant morphological differences, showing Leonodus a typical diplodont tooth morphology with a linguo-labially elongated base, that contrast with Celtiberina’s teeth that show a single conical cusp curved lingually with a week developed flat base mesio- distally extended, perhaps reflecting distant relationship. These data are compatible with a pre-Devonian diversification of the two main tooth types traditionally recognised in Palaeozoic sharks (i.e., “cladodont” vs “diplodont”). Finally, our data demonstrate that existing dental classification schemes based on styles of vascularisation are over-simplified, especially when Palaeozoic taxa are considered.
The high-pressure torsion (HPT) of Ti-Fe alloys with different iron content has been studied at 7 GPa, 5 anvil rotations and rotation speed of 1 rpm. The alloys have been annealed before HPT in such a way that they contained different amounts of α/α' and β phases. In turn, the β phase contained different concentration of iron. The 5 anvil rotations correspond to the HPT steady-state and to the dynamic equilibrium between formation and annihilation of microstructure defects. HPT leads to the transformation of initial α/α' and β-phases into mixture of α and high-pressure ω-phase. The α → ω and β → ω phase transformations are martensitic, and certain orientation relationships exist between α and ω as well as β and ω phases. However, the composition of ω-phase is the same in all samples after HPT and does not depend on the composition of β-phase (which is different in different initial samples). Therefore, the martensitic (diffusionless) transformations are combined with a certain HPT-driven mass-transfer. We observed also that the structure and properties of phases (namely, α-Ti and ω-Ti) in the Ti – 2.2 wt. % Fe and Ti – 4 wt. % Fe alloys after HPT are equifinal and do not depend on the structure and properties of initial α'-Ti and β-Ti before HPT.