The Hornsund region is characterised by a topoclimatic variation, which results principally from the local orography, the vicinity of open sea and the two contrasting environments: non-glaciated and glaciated. The specific types of atmospheric circulation determine the local thermal differences. The west coast is characterised by the most favourable thermal conditions, where air temperature is largely determined by foehn processes. The temperature at the Baranowski Station is 0.8°C higher on average than that of the Polish Polar Station on the northern shore of Hornsund . The temperature in the northern shore of the fjord happens to be higher than that on the west coast, which is attributed to the NW cyclonic inflow of cool Arctic air masses. During intermediate weather, when ground frost-thaw takes place, the northern shore of Hornsund is warmer by 0.5°C ; whereas, during moderately frosty weather, it is warmer by 0.2°C than the west coast. The differences result from the effect of the warmer fjord waters on the surrounding air temperature. During moderately warm weather, more favourable conditions occur near the Baranowski Station, expressed by the mean temperature difference of 0.9°C. The greatest temperature difference of 1.5°C on average is normally recorded during warm weather.
The article describes structure of the Convention on the Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic (FAL 1965), mechanisms of facilitation, and discusses Polish perspectives on the relationship between the Convention and European law. FAL aims to facilitate and expedite international maritime traffic and to prevent unnecessary delays to ships and to persons and property on board. The Convention reduces the number of documents required for entry and departure from port to 9. The European Union, in cooperation with the International Maritime Organization, intends to digitalize ship arrival and departure notifications. The author argues that IMO Resolution FAL 8(32), in force since 2006, and the IMO Resolution FAL 10(35), in force since 2010, are of auxiliary nature and as such do not require Polish ratification procedures. They do bind, however, by way of tacit acceptance.
The aim of the research is to conceptualise the methodology of analysing regional development paths. To do so, the model of regional development path transformation was created. The model consists of indicators describing each of the process areas: 1) path dependency; 2) event exposure; 3) adaptation to short-term shocks; 4) long-term adaptability, and 5) region performance. The model also indicates relationships between these indicators and describes the most probable behaviours of the regional economies during the process.
A mathematical model of the steam superheater exchanger with distributed parameters has been developed. Scale deposits were assumed to be present on the internal tube surfaces. It was assumed that the inner tube surfaces are covered by a thin layer of scale deposits. The finite volume method was used to solve partial differential equations describing flue gas, tube wall and steam temperature. The developed modeling technique can especially be used for modeling tube heat exchangers when detail information on the tube wall temperature distribution is needed. The numerical model of the superheater developed in the paper can be used for modeling of the superheaters with complex flow arrangement accounting scales on the internal tube surfaces. Using the model proposed the detailed steam, wall and flue gas temperature distribution over the entire superheater can be determined. The steam pressure distribution along its path flow and the total heat transfer rate can also be obtained. The calculations showed that the presence of scale on the internal surfaces of the tubes cause the steam temperature decrease and the heat flow rate transferred from the flue gas to the steam. Scale deposits on the inner surfaces of the tubes cause the tube wall temperature growth and can lead to premature wear of tubes due to overheating.
The paper presents dynamic responses of annular plate composed of three layers. The middle layer of the plate has electrorheological properties expressed by the Bingham body model. The plate is loaded in the plane of facings with time-dependent forces. The electrorheological effect is observed in the area of supercritical plate behaviour. The influence of both material properties and geometrical dimensions of the core on plate behaviour is examined. The problem is solved analytically and numerically using the orthogonalization method and the finite difference method. Comparison of the results obtained using the finite difference and the finite element methods for a plate in critical state is shown. The numerical calculations are carried out for axisymmetric and asymmetric plate modes. The presented diagrams show the plate reaction to the changes in values of plate parameters and indicate that the supercritical control of plate work is possible.