In 1920 qualitative and quantitative benthos samples collected in Barents Sea sublittoral in the years 1951-1983 154 species, 77 genera and 30 families of Amphipoda Gammaridea were identified. Species diversity was highest among the Lysianassidae, Oedicerotidae, Ampcliscidae, Calliopiidae and Pleustidae. Ampelisca eschrichti clearly dominated the material. This same species, plus Haploops setosa and Anonyx nugax were both the most frequently occurring and most numerous species. The distribution of amphipods in the Barents Sea sublittoral varies both in diversity and numbers by region, depth, sediments and water temperature. Zoogeographical changes are discussed in the present paper. Altogether 331 species of amphipods have been hitherto collected in the Barents Sea, of which 317 species, 126 genera and 39 families belong to the suborder Gammaridea.
The purpose of this article was to discuss the use of adsorption chillers for waste heat recovery. The introduction discusses the need to undertake broader measures for the effective management of waste heat in the industry and discusses the benefits and technical problems related to heat recovery in industrial plants. In addition, heat sources for adsorption chillers and their application examples were described. The principle of operation of adsorption chillers is explained in the next chapter. Heat sources for adsorption chillers are indicated and their application examples are described. The above considerations have allowed the benefits and technical obstacles related to the use of adsorption chillers to be highlighted. The currently used adsorbents and adsorbates are discussed later in the article. The main part of the paper discusses the use of adsorption chillers for waste heat management in the glassworks. The calculations assumed the natural gas demand of 20.1 million m3 per year and the electricity demand of 20,000 MWh/year. As a result of conducted calculations, a 231 kW adsorption chiller, ensuring the annual cold production of 2,021 MWh, was selected. The economic analysis of the proposed solution has shown that the investment in the adsorption chiller supplied with waste heat from the heat recovery system will bring significant economic benefits after 10 years from its implementation, even with total investment costs of PLN 1,900,000. However, it was noted that in order to obtain satisfactory economic results the production must meet the demand while the cost of building a heat recovery system shall not exceed PLN 1 million.
The EU member states have implemented excise duties on fuel and electricity according to the EU Energy Tax Directive. The purpose of these measures is to motivate a reduction in energy consumption by internalizing external costs of energy. The taxes on energy have success in inciting energy savings. Simultaneously, the price levels of energy in the EU member states have increased to levels significantly higher compared to other countries in the region and the world. The price increase is the result of a cumulative effect of excise duties and other taxes and mechanisms including feed-in tariffs and quota policies. While the Energy Tax Directive gives the member states a level of freedom in setting the exact duty rates, the minimal rates enforced on all member states are relatively high. The policy intends to limit competition between the states on low energy prices and arbitrage trading between countries. We examine the purchasing power for energy products relative to the per capita GDP for a wide set of countries countries within the EU and in the rest of the world. We can identify several groups or clusters of countries based on their GDP per capita and energy prices. The new member states of the EU face a unique combination of low or moderate GDP per capita and very high energy prices. Their relative purchasing power for energy is degraded to levels comparable or lower than the purchasing power in developing countries with significantly lower GDP per capita and underdeveloped energy infrastructure. The calibration of energy taxation in the EU at high price levels suitable for Western European economies with high per capita GDP is leading to strong negative social effects and increasing poverty in Eastern European member states. The current implementation of these policies does not recognize to a sufficient extent income levels, regional social inequalities, and the low price elasticity of demand for energy.
In this article the author attempts to define the specificity of the tools for development planning at the local level in the context of: institutional resources of community (gmina) (and means of strengthening them), models of public management as well as the specifics of the Polish public administration system and its ensuing dysfunctions. These dysfunctions rely mainly on a limited awareness of the need to create mechanisms of coordination for: socio-economics, spatial and financial planning. These factors contribute to a decrease in the effectiveness of measures for the development of communities. Socio-economic planning answers the question: WHAT we want to do in the community; spatial planning: WHERE we would like to carry out certain activities, and financial planning: HOW MUCH it will cost and where the financial sources are. We can see the theoretical causal links between the areas of development planning, therefore, the main purpose of this article is to offer conceptual framework and a relevant case study of Kraków serving as its validation attempt.
Stanisław Wyspiański (1869–1907) was the Polish dramatist, the poet, besides the illustrator and the painter, one of the best known artist of the Young Poland movement. His journey to Europe (particulary to Paris) became very important experience in his life. He discovered the value of loneliness, he had to be alone – as an artist and as a man. He was called “a hermit from Cracow” and for this reason his genius was not always appreciated. However, at the end of life, Wyspiański undergoes a significant transformation: he feels a strong connection to community, as a member of the nation and society, as well as a host.
In the paper presented are the results of calculations using authors own model to predict heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling of carbon dioxide. The experimental data from various researches were collected. Calculations were conducted for a full range of quality variation and a wide range of mass velocity. The aim of the study was to test the sensitivity of the in-house model. The results show the importance of taking into account the surface tension as the parameter exhibiting its importance in case of the flow in minichannels as well as the influence of reduced pressure. The calculations were accomplished to test the sensitivity of the heat transfer model with respect to selection of the appropriate two-phase flow multiplier, which is one of the elements of the heat transfer model. For that purpose correlations due to Müller-Steinhagen and Heck as well as the one due to Friedel were considered. Obtained results show a good consistency with experimental results, however the selection of two-phase flow multiplier does not significantly influence the consistency of calculations.